Eliot's works were collected in 1950 in T.S. Eliot: The Complete Poems and Plays 1909-1950. Since "Prufrock" was one of his earliest published works, readers can follow the poet's development: almost everything he wrote was noteworthy.
A good literary biography of Eliot is Ronald Bush's T.S. Eliot: A Study in Character and Style, published in 1983. The book portrays Eliot's artistic struggles with himself and ambition to always take art further than it had ever gone before.
A fascinating way to understand what was going on in the author's mind when he created this poem, and what he thought about it when it was done, is to read The Letters of T.S. Eliot, edited by Valerie Eliot, his widow, and published in 1988. Volume I covers 1898-1922, years when Eliot was an artistic revolutionary while working as a banker.