How have Ralph's experiences on the island changed him and how does William Golding show this?
At the beginning of the story, Ralph stands in stark contrast to Jack in his calm demeanor and his eagerness to establish rules that will help the boys to get rescued. He seems to be very concerned about the other boys and is confident that his dad will come rescue them as soon as he gets some leave.
But there are several incidents that show how he changes, in particular how he loses the innocence he had at the outset of the story. The first is when he participates in the hunt and manages to wound the pig. He revels in it, showing that he too is willing to give in to the desire for violence. The second instance is when he is part of the murder of Simon. Though Ralph regrets it, he demonstrates an understanding of the blackness and despair that he feels after the party when he and Piggy and SamnEric discuss what happened.
At the close of the story, Golding uses Ralph to symbolize the loss of innocence of all the boys as he describes him weeping. Though the naval officer is there to rescue them, Ralph weeps bitterly at what he now knows about the boys and the darkness inside of them.