Nothing is known with certainty about Longinus (lohn-JI-nuhs). He most likely lived in the first century c.e. and wrote Peri Hypsous (first century c.e.; On the Sublime, 1739) during the reign of Nero (r. 54-68). A substantial part of Longinus’s On the Sublime has been lost. Still, the treatise, Platonic in its rhetoric and Aristotelian in its logic, is perhaps the finest example of literary criticism produced in antiquity. The author is writing to rebut the literary views of Caecilius of Caleacte and, by discussing a parallel set of authors, both demolishes those views and explains to those in public life how to move the souls of their hearers through language. Longinus bases his aesthetic theory on his sense of human dignity, which he places in the faculty of speech and in the human responses to grand natural phenomena—such as volcanoes and oceans—and their authentic artistic evocations.