What do the phrases "chartered street," "mind-forged manacles," and "blacking church" mean in Blake's "London"?

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In "London," Blake is railing against what he sees as the oppressiveness of modern life. The streets of the city are "charter'd," meaning that they have been mapped. Like all other aspects of modern life, the very streets are becoming increasingly organized and controlled on the basis of rational principles. Blake is criticizing the spirit of the Enlightenment here. Far from being a movement of liberation, Blake sees the Enlightenment as an instrument of oppression, its ideas little more than "mind-forged manacles" or chains, that keep people in a state of subjection.

Even in such allegedly enlightened times, the old institutions of Church and Throne still exert great power over the masses. The blackened walls of individual churches symbolize what Blake regards as the unholy state of the contemporary Church. It's supposed to be an institution that cares for the poor, yet it hires child laborers for an absolute pittance to remove the soot that builds up in church buildings' chimneys. The blackened church buildings represent not just the moral iniquity of the Church but also the dark decay and corruption of modern life.

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This poem is meant to convey how bad it is to live in civilization during Blake's time.  He feels that all the institutions of civilization are in some way oppressive or evil.  This idea is shown in the phrases you mention.

The first one "charter'd street" refers to the idea of law and civilization.  A charter is a law giving a city its existence.  A chart is a map.  Between them, these give the idea of streets (and the river) being made by man -- put into existence by law and mapped.

The blackning church refers, in my opinion, to Blake's view that the organized church was black -- evil.

Finally, the "mind-forged manacles" refer to the idea that all the people are oppressed.  But it is saying that they help to oppress themselves by making their own chains (manacles) with their thoughts and attitudes.  He says they believe in all these ideas (like the Church and monarchy) that oppress them.

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