Direct characterization occurs when an author explicitly tells the reader what kind of person a character is. This information can be given by a narrator or a character in the story.
“Sam was a stubborn and proud boy.”
“‘I am a very independent person,’ Sam said.”
In this case, a character is directly characterizing himself.
“Sam was not pleased when he received a C- on his math exam.”
Remember that direct characterization occurs only when something is said that speaks to someone’s character traits. Not every explicit description or revelation is direct characterization.