What are some possible themes in a piece of literature?

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Wow!  What a question that is.  I think you are referring to universal themes, or the common themes in literature.  The theme of a book or poem is the author’s message or point.  Here are 100 common themes, which I have abbreviated due to lack of context and to save room: hero’s journey, revenge, betrayal, beauty, love and loss, power of love, power of loss, grief, corruption of greed, ambition , The American dream, freedom, rugged strength of pioneer, revolution, standing up for what you believe in, believe in yourself, fairy godmother, friendship isn’t free, freedom isn’t free, freedom, what it means to be human, redemption in sacrifice, David vs. Goliath, woman ruining man, man ruining woman, virginity, devastating power of loss, wisdom of elders, friendship, class struggles, young love, lasting love, loss of innocence, coming of age, discrimination exists everywhere, nature is beautiful, fate, fall from grace, war, fear, bravery in battle, glory in battle, the power of one, duty, the individual in society, community, destiny, search for the meaning of life, search for spirituality, time, death, resurrection, marginalization, abandonment, survival, cruelty, family, identity, hope, pride, memory, tradition, violence, work, race, supernatural, technology, jealousy, pursuit of happiness, pursuit of beauty, pursuit of power, pursuit of love, pursuit of youth, man vs. man, man vs. self, man vs. supernatural, man vs. nature, man vs. technology, man vs. supernatural, circle of life, crime does not pay, what goes around comes around, strength in diversity, you don’t always get what you want but sometime you get what you need, be careful what you wish for, three wishes, devastating power of dreams,  witch hunt, treat others as you want to be treated, running, Armageddon/worldwide holocaust, strength of story, the chosen one, sins of the father passed to the son, son redeeming father, strength in family, a family takes on the characteristics of its head, tolerance, we have more in common than difference, relationships.

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