Pierre Corneille composed works for the aristocratic ladies and gentlemen of the seventeenth century. He was acclaimed by many critics to have brought new levels of psychological realism and elegance of language into French comedy; he rejected, for example, the pastoral tradition of disguising noble or gentle characters in shepherds’ clothing in Mélite: Ou, Les Fausses Lettres (pr. 1630; English translation, 1776), which portrays gentlepersons of the gallant world of the 1620’s and 1630’s. The lively dialogue that characterizes Corneille’s comedies is especially dazzling in The Liar. Corneille’s penchant for creating verse was manifested before he began composing the French neoclassical twelve-syllable Alexandrine lines that are so sparkling in The Liar; Corneille won prizes in Latin versification in both 1618 and 1620.
The Liar played a significant role in the development of French comedy because it moved away from the farcical techniques and the obscenities of earlier comedies. In accordance with the French classical style, emphasizing reason, order, and clarity, The Liar portrays life and manners in Paris. In the first scene of act 1, Dorante’s valet, Cliton, gives a realistic account of the Parisian manner of living. By pointing out that all types of people inhabit Paris, Cliton presents the central theme of reality versus appearances; the valet’s idea that appearances are often deceptive because people enjoy pretending to be what they are not shows his keen perception about people.
The Liar, which is based on Juan Ruiz de Alarcón’s La verdad sospechosa (pb. 1630; The Truth Suspected, 1927), contains elements that show the influence of Spanish drama, with its emphasis on the themes of instability, confusion, and misunderstandings and the comic relationship of valet and master. Corneille presents the theme of instability through his depiction of the falseness of appearances. For example, Clarice wants to discern between appearance and reality in act 2, scene 2, when she speaks to Isabelle about Dorante, whose father has just proposed her marriage to his son. While wondering if Dorante’s gracious appearance could possibly mask vices, she realizes that the eyes can deceive the lover, given that many handsome lovers possess vile hearts.
Another variation on the theme of instability is found in...
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