Letter from Birmingham City Jail Summary

Martin Luther King Jr.’s “Letter from Birmingham City Jail” responds to criticism against him and outlines the ideology of nonviolent protest.

  • Eight Birmingham clergymen had published a letter in a newspaper decrying the demonstrations of King and his followers. 
  • King argues that his participation in and organization of protests have been warranted and necessary. He writes that he and his fellow demonstrators have a duty to fight for justice. 
  • King explains the four steps of nonviolent protest: fact finding, negotiation, self-purification, and direct action. 
  • To conclude, King justifies civil disobedience and expresses his disappointment in the inaction of the Southern churches.


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Last Updated on July 22, 2020, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 980


On April 12, 1963, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested for his participation in nonviolent civil rights demonstrations in Birmingham, Alabama. That same day, eight clergymen from Birmingham published a letter in the Birmingham News that indirectly called out King and condemned the methods of the civil rights protesters.

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From his jail cell, King penned his famous “Letter from Birmingham City Jail,” responding to the charges the clergymen had laid against him and his supporters. King’s letter was widely published and read, and he later included a revised version of the letter in his book Why We Can’t Wait. The letter became an essential text of the civil rights movement for its advocacy of nonviolent protest and justifications of civil disobedience. 


King begins his “Letter from Birmingham City Jail” by stating that he doesn’t often respond to his critics, but since the eight “fellow clergymen” who wrote the article against him are “men of genuine good will,” he is electing to respond to their concerns. 

The first complaint that King addresses is that he and his staff are “outsiders” in Birmingham and are meddling in the affairs of a city that isn’t their own. To this, he replies that he has organizational ties to Birmingham, as he is the president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and was also invited by an affiliate organization. He has also been called to Birmingham by his moral conscience: he desires to carry the “gospel of freedom” everywhere. He famously declares that “Injustice anywhere is a threat to freedom everywhere” and avers that no American citizen can be an outsider in the US. Having defended his presence in Birmingham, King condemns the clergymen’s eagerness to denounce the demonstrations taking place in Birmingham but not the social and racial issues that have necessitated them. 

Dr. King next outlines the procedure for nonviolent resistance: “collection of facts . . . negotiation, self-purification, and direct action.” He then addresses the clergymen’s accusations that he and his organization’s actions have been untimely and rash and that they should have worked through the city’s political and judicial channels. Negotiation, King assures, has been attempted but proven ineffective. Through the example of the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights’s protest against racial signs in stores, Dr. King proves that civil rights organizations in Birmingham have carefully considered their timing and methods: protesters were prepared with a series of workshops on nonviolence, and the protest itself was postponed a number of times so as to not interfere with the 1963 mayoral election in which they hoped to see Bull Conner defeated.

King acknowledges that the clergymen’s concern about his willingness to break laws is valid. However, King explains that there are two types of laws: just and unjust. To explain how one distinguishes between the two, King draws upon the writings of Christian theologian St. Thomas Aquinas and Jewish philosopher...

(The entire section contains 980 words.)

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