Illustration of a man visiting another man in jail

A Lesson before Dying

by Ernest J. Gaines

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The Characters

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The strong will of two women provides the energy that sets the action of A Lesson Before Dying in motion. The tension between two men who both have something to learn about what it is to be a man provides the central structural principle of the novel.

Miss Emma and Tante Lou are old women in 1948, the year in which the action of the novel takes place. Both were born not long after emancipation, and both have been servants in the homes of white people. They have learned the practice of humility, as required by their position in a racially ordered society, and they also know the deeper humility that is part of their Christian faith. They also know their own worth, and they know how important that knowledge is. That is, in part, what motivates their determination that Jefferson will not go to his death thinking himself less than a man. They know what they can claim for themselves within the place society has defined for them. They employ this knowledge when they present their project to Henri Pichot, whose influence in the region makes his approval a necessity. He must acknowledge that Miss Emma has a right to ask for special consideration, for even this insane social system has its rules, but the women must in turn ask in the tones required by their position within the system. Fortunately, Miss Emma, Tante Lou, and Henri Pichot know how the game is played.

Grant and Jefferson form at first glance an obvious contrast. Grant is an educated man who has known the world beyond the quarter, while Jefferson may seem to represent Grant’s worst fears of what the quarter may normally be expected to produce. The design of the novel demands that these two touch each other at a very deep level, and that can happen convincingly only if it becomes evident that the two men share some quality that will permit that touching to occur. What both men need, as gradually becomes clear, is a recognition and acceptance of their own humanity. The circumstances of Jefferson’s life and of his impending death make this immediately evident in his case. Grant, however, lives in a psychological prison. He is helpless to bring about a satisfactory resolution to his relationship with Vivian, and he is convinced that his efforts to educate the children of the quarter are an exercise in futility. That he is required by social convention to conceal the signs of his own education when talking to white people intensifies his sense of hopelessness. He lives therefore from moment to moment, in a constant, barely repressed awareness of his impotence. What he does not at first recognize is that his call to teach Jefferson will allow him to find his own dignity and humanity. Thus, he and Jefferson share a lesson, the lesson, perhaps, all people must learn before dying.

The interaction among these principal characters is enriched by an abundance of sharply drawn minor characters, both black and white. As is customary in Gaines’s work, there are no stereotypes or caricatures to be found in this novel. He treats all of his characters, even those of whose conduct he must disapprove, with imaginative sympathy and generosity.

The Characters

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Grant Wiggins, the protagonist, is also the novel’s primary narrator, so it is chiefly his thoughts that the reader audits. He is a seeker cut adrift from his communal moorings by his education, which, ironically, seems to limit rather than expand his options. Given his time and place, he can be little other than a teacher, but his...

(This entire section contains 507 words.)

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doubts about the value of trying to help the quarter children make him harsh and perfunctory, almost a martinet. Initially, he seems destined to fulfill the fate that Matthew Antoine has told him is in store for him, to become “the nigger” he was “born to be.” For Grant, Jefferson’s plight is all too typical of what a young, ignorant black male might expect in a white man’s world, and Grant sees little point in trying to help him. He gradually warms up to his charge, however, not so much from the moral cross Tante Lou has tried to make him shoulder as his desire to prove Sheriff Guidry and others wrong. Blinded by pride, palpable resentment, and doubt, Grant does not fully understand that, in helping Jefferson, he has set out on his own spiritual odyssey, one that finally proves Matthew Antoine wrong. The reader understands, however, and knows that Paul’s visit to the quarter, made from respect and admiration for Grant, signals an enduring, hopeful change.

Although Grant is hostile to Tante Lou’s moral arm-twisting, she is the first important catalyst in his transformation. She will not let Grant wheedle out of what she perceives as both his Christian and communal responsibility. His education has led him to question her beliefs, but Grant’s residual sense of guilt is tapped by his aunt, for whom he has both affection and grudging reverence. She, of course, is bound to the community by traditional ties based in an abiding faith that Grant, in his modern enlightenment, has almost entirely rejected. He cannot, however, refuse her on a personal level. Vivian is the other important catalyst. Her love offers Grant solace and hope in his darker moments, when the pointlessness of trying to help seems confirmed by Jefferson’s actions. She also keeps Grant anchored to his job, because she is not free to leave with him until she obtains her divorce. Her own strong sense of responsibility, rooted in more private feelings of pride and dignity, nicely balances Tante Lou’s.

While Grant’s main conflict lies within, it is to an important degree objectified in the person of Jefferson, the novel’s victim. To raise him up, Grant must overcome Jefferson’s self-loathing, inculcated by whites who have repeatedly told him that he is no better than an animal. It is that same self-effacement and contempt from which Grant has tried to run, evading rather than coping with it. In helping Jefferson, he is at last forced to face up to and triumph over it. Jefferson, going to his death with manly dignity, provides an outer measure of Grant’s own spiritual growth.

Characters Discussed

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Grant Wiggins

Grant Wiggins, who grew up in the “quarters” and has returned from a California university to teach “reading, writing, and ’rithmetic” in the plantation school. As a first-person narrator in a plot progression that is both bitter and humorous, Grant is not altogether admirable. Struggling with individual and communal concerns, he behaves from a perspective of superiority. In tragic and comedic episodes, he exhibits an ironic detachment that is neither naïve nor dispassionate but perplexingly veiled. His self-deprecatory and contemptuous voice disguises skepticism and uncertainty. Only reluctantly does he attempt the role of secular priest to a convicted man.


Jefferson, a reluctant participant in a liquor store shoot-out in which three persons are killed: Brother and Bear (the robbers) and Alcee Grope (the white owner). As the lone survivor, Jefferson is accused of planning the robbery and of murder. At his trial, the defense attorney contends that Jefferson is incapable of premeditated murder even though he behaved “like a fool” or “a cornered animal.” To the outrage of Jefferson’s godmother and significant others in the “quarters,” the lawyer further argues, “Why, I could just as soon put a hog in the electric chair as this.” Jefferson is sentenced by a panel of twelve white men to death by electrocution. Enduring the drab conditions of incarceration, Jefferson achieves self-awareness when he is encouraged by his former teacher, Grant Wiggins, to write his thoughts. As a result, after responding detachedly to his godmother and Grant for months and literally wallowing in home-prepared food, Jefferson speaks eloquently, in his diary, of his humanity.

Aunt Lou

Aunt Lou, Grant’s God-fearing aunt, who is challenged to rise above private agitation to confront a brutal character assault. She possesses attributes of the author’s maternal aunt, Miss Augusteen Jefferson. Aunt Lou and Miss Emma Glenn, as elders, provide the bedrock of family life that sustains the “quarters.” Through Jefferson’s months of suffering, Aunt Lou’s adaptability serves as a contrast to Grant’s lackluster vacillation. Behaving as a role model, however imperfectly, Aunt Lou does not succumb to past fears and immobility when a resident of the “quarters” is defamed. Her wish is that Jefferson meet his execution like a man, not the unthinking “hog” he was called by the white lawyer.

Miss Emma Glenn

Miss Emma Glenn, the godmother of the accused man. She persuades Grant to impart something of himself (as a teacher and symbol) to Jefferson in an effort to prove the lawyer wrong. Miss Emma moves through the trial episodes and the world of the narrative with a calm and control that seem always on the verge of eruption. Through Miss Emma, Jefferson becomes a concern of the entire community—“quarters” occupants, the Bayonne residents, even Grant’s students in the church school.


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An article in DIScovering Authors (Gale Group, 1999), states, "Gaines depicts the strength and dignity of his Black characters in the face of numerous struggles; the dehumanizing and destructive effects of racism; the breakdown in personal relationships as a result of social pressures; and the choice between secured traditions and the sometimes radical measures necessary to bring about social change."

Grant Wiggins is a product of the school in the Quarter, but because he has been to California, he has had the opportunity to go to high school and college. This has given him a point of view different from that of the people who have lived in the Quarter all their lives. This also makes him somewhat of an outsider, someone who does not quite understand or believe the same things the community does. The Black community respects him because of his education and the White community distrusts him because of it. The White people are not used to a Black man who has been to school. He is out of step, feels degraded when his actions must fit the mold expected by the White community, and dreams of escaping to another place. Vivian points out to him that he had escaped and asks why he came back. He has no answer. He ultimately becomes the student of the community, learning from both Reverend Ambrose and Jefferson what it means to be a part of the community and the history of the community. Jonathan Yardley, writing in the Washington Post Book World, says that Grant is forced to "admit his own complicity in the system in which Jefferson is a victim."

Jefferson, semi-illiterate, rises to the status of hero by the end of the story. Sandra D. Davis, writing for the Detroit Free Press, says, "[Gaines] creates a compelling, intense story about heroes and the human spirit" in which Grant learns from Jefferson and the Reverend Ambrose that "education encompasses more than the lessons taught in school." Jefferson is able to use the support of the community to rise above the label, "hog," placed on him by his attorney and become a symbol of the strength of the Black community. The radio Grant brings to Jefferson, a "sin box," according to the Reverend Ambrose, emphasizes the conflict between Grant and the Reverend. Folks writes that while the radio is played loudly at first, Jefferson's way of drowning out Miss Emma and the Reverend, in the end it is muted, symbolizing Grant's and the Reverend's reconciliation. Through his journal, Jefferson finds he can express his feelings, feelings he has not recognized before, enabling him to show his love for Miss Emma, his new respect for himself and his community, and his friendship for Paul. After the execution, Grant leaves the journal at the school for the children to read, allowing them access to Jefferson, the hero.

The Reverend Ambrose represents what Grant considers to be a flaw in the community: its dependence on the church and the religious calendar to order the life of the people. The time frame of the novel is from a month before Christmas to the second Friday after Easter, encompassing the two most important holidays of the Christian religion. The recitation of Bible verses by the school children to begin each day shows that the community expects their religious beliefs to be a way of communicating with one another. Grant's boredom with the children's recitations accentuates his distance from the culture of his people. The Reverend and Grant cannot agree on a faith that presents a continuance of life after death. Folks tells us that "in the context of Southern rural society, to deny the afterlife is to undercut the very basis of responsibility that holds the community together and binds individuals to the community." The Reverend understands his responsibility to the community; Grant must learn his.

Paul Bonin is a young White man, a deputy sheriff who comes to respect Grant, Jefferson, Miss Emma, and Tante Lou. He delivers to Grant the message that the execution is over, telling him that Jefferson was the bravest person in the room. He accepts Grant on equal terms and with the beginnings of friendship. He is a portent of the future, an indication that social change will come to Bayonne, and that he will be a part of it.

Vivian, also a teacher, is trapped in Bayonne by the terms of her divorce. She must remain in the area so the children's father can visit each weekend. She is Grant's strength and his chain to the community. Another link in that chain is forged when she becomes pregnant with his child. With this he begins to change, to accept the idea that he must remain and help change the community for the better.

The women of the community, Miss Emma, Tante Lou, and the others, through their insistence that Jefferson can become a man, force Grant to accept responsibility in the community. Miss Emma insists that she be allowed to visit Jefferson in the day room rather than his cell so that there will be room for everyone to sit down. She shows the respect she feels for Jefferson and her community by bringing food on each visit, linens for the table, and dishes and spoons to eat with (forks and knives are not allowed). All the women affirm their faith in life by providing food to comfort and sustain. Miss Emma requests that anything that is left over on the visits to the jail be given to the other inmates, most of them young Black men, reaffirming the community's commitment to them as well as Jefferson.

The school children are the hope of the community. Irene Cole is Grant's student teacher, helping him by teaching the first and second grade children. Her goal is to be a teacher when she grows up. The older boys help by splitting the wood for the stove that heats the school and cutting the Christmas tree for the holiday program. The older girls are responsible for getting cotton lint and crepe paper to decorate the tree. These acts confirm that the children are learning the importance of helping other members of the community.

The sheriff and Mr. Henri are typical of Southern White males at the time of the story. The sheriff is content with the status quo; Mr. Henri is content, but beginning to realize that there may be something wrong with the way things have always been done. He is afraid of the changes he senses are coming, but is not completely comfortable with the way things are. He hovers in the background, seeming to draw away from the sheriff and his attitude, but not strong enough to challenge him. The sheriff is content with his power and fears that social change will rob him of it.




Critical Essays