The Poem

Download PDF Print Page Citation Share Link

Last Updated on May 8, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 574

“Legend” is a short poem of five stanzas of varying length. It is written in free verse and has elegiac qualities evidenced in the seriousness of the emotional statement being made about its topic: Hart Crane’s lament for a homosexual experience or (more likely) relationship recalled from his youth. His lost love has now become “legend” to him, and the poet ponders the meanings of this passing.

Illustration of PDF document

Download Legend Study Guide

Subscribe Now

Although the poem is written in the first person, the poet refers explicitly to himself one time only; he creates an aura of subtlety about his work by couching most of the important statements in passive voice. Crane does not much address or even seem aware of the reader; it is as though he were whispering a secret to himself.

The first stanza is the shortest one, containing only two lines. Crane positions himself in front of a “silent” mirror where, it “is believed,” that “Realities plunge in silence by . . .” The redundancy of having a “silent” mirror in which reality plunges in “silence” is effective. His topic, in both its sexual and emotional nature, requires an absence of noise not only to preclude discovery but also to provoke an intensity in thought. Crane does not say who does the “believing,” but the believer is identified in the next stanza, where he is revealed to be the poet himself.

The reader does not yet know that the implicit “now” of the second stanza refers to the poet in the “noon,” or middle age, of his life. He asserts that he is not “ready for repentance.” He is not sorry, by any means, for the experience which will be labeled “legend” in the last line of the poem. Nor is he ready “to match regrets”—a statement which may indicate that his lover had regretted the relationship, though not repented it. “Kisses” remain the most operant part of reality, the “only worth all granting.”

The third stanza begins with another operative passive, “It is to be learned.” The poet then defines the “It” as “This cleaving and this burning”; that is, he describes the intertwined sexual and emotional makeup of the love. “Cleaving” suggests an attempt on the part of the poet to hold on to his personal legend; just as readily, “burning” indicates the intensity of this relationship both in terms of its culmination in the past and unquenchable desire for its return in the present. The “one who/ Spends out himself again” is another indirect reference to the poet himself and a reference to masturbation.

The next stanza is the most enigmatic in the poem. The “Twice and twice” is explainable, however, in terms of the reference to the “unwhisperingmirror” at the end of the stanza. The poet counts himself as one and his reflection in the mirror of his soul as two; his love is compounded because the identity of his legend-lover is also embodied in his own, so there are two such reflections; that is, they are “Twice and twice.”

The important part of the last stanza is the concluding two lines, in which the poet explains the title of the poem by mentioning the “legend”—the personal love kept alive and made greater in love, emotion, and accomplishment in time. Crane attempts to expand the meaning of his expression by moving from the personal to the plural. He writes “for all those,” and the personal legend of the title becomes, collectively, “their” legend.

Forms and Devices

Download PDF Print Page Citation Share Link

Last Updated on May 8, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 376

The most important poetic devices in “Legend” are imagery and metaphor; each stanza contains elements that help the poet express the condition of his soul. The most important image is that of the mirror. Crane sees himself in the mirror, literally, but he also sees the reflection of his homosexual lover. Both are silent, and both are to be believed because the mirror does, in fact, reflect reality. The mirror is silent, “unwhispering,” but it works to make “Realities” evident.

In the second stanza, the rather commonplace metaphor of the moth and the flame appears. A moth is attracted to the beauty of the flame which destroys it; such is the case of the poet and his legendary lover. The reflection in the mirror is both of himself and of his lover, but at least one of these will destroy the other. Later, in the fourth stanza, a “smoking souvenir” is mentioned, a reference to the burned remnants of the relationship. It is the result of the “burning” mentioned in the middle stanza.

Explicit and implicit sexual images abound in the poem. The mirror is indicative of masturbation and narcissism as well as homosexuality. The “cleaving and burning” of the third stanza literally and emotionally indicate the sex act, on one hand, and an intense longing for a departed lover on the other. The “Spends out himself again” is another reference to masturbation. The “smoking souvenir” of the fourth stanza at once refers to the burning moth of the second and to an expended phallus. The “Bleeding eidolon,” or phantom, may be similarly explicated; it indicates a spent penis as well as the memory of his lost lover. Even so, the most explicit reference to the sex act occurs in the final stanza, where the poet records a “constant harmony” that has been achieved “drop by caustic drop.” The reference is both to masturbation and to the following announcement of the “legend”-lover, the homosexual relationship of his youth. “Drop by caustic drop” can be explained as a reference to orgasm; the “constant harmony” means that the significance of such a relationship has never wavered or faltered. Finally, it is called a “Relentless caper,” which ironically shows that it is not a caperish prank at all.

Bibliography

Download PDF Print Page Citation Share Link

Last Updated on May 8, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 121

Berthoff, Warner. Hart Crane: A Re-introduction. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989.

Bloom, Harold, ed. Hart Crane: Comprehensive Research and Study Guide. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2003.

Cole, Merrill. The Other Orpheus: A Poetics of Modern Homosexuality. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Fisher, Clive. Hart Crane. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2002.

Hammer, Langdon. Hart Crane and Allen Tate: Janus-Faced Modernism. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Leibowitz, Herbert A. Hart Crane: An Introduction to the Poetry. New York: Columbia University Press, 1968.

Mariani, Paul L. The Broken Tower: A Life of Hart Crane. New York: W. W. Norton, 1999.

Rehder, Robert. Stevens, Williams, Crane, and the Motive for Metaphor. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

Unterecker, John. Voyager: A Life of Hart Crane. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1969.

Unlock This Study Guide Now

Start your 48-hour free trial and unlock all the summaries, Q&A, and analyses you need to get better grades now.

  • 30,000+ book summaries
  • 20% study tools discount
  • Ad-free content
  • PDF downloads
  • 300,000+ answers
  • 5-star customer support
Start your 48-hour free trial
Previous

Themes

Explore Study Guides