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Please elaborate on Federalism vs Confederalism.

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Federalism refers to a system of government in which power is split between the national or federal government and state or regional governments, with the national government having more power over the state. However, it is important to note that the regional governments have independent powers and responsibilities. In fact,...

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federalism allows the regional governments to have their own legislative, executive, and judiciary branches through which laws can be passed, interpreted, and enforced as long as they do not contravene the constitution. The system is advantageous because it not only enables the state governments to respond more effectively to the needs of the citizens in their jurisdictions but also provides a mechanism to check the activities of the national government. Even though the national government reserves the rights to make foreign policy, control imports and exports, and declare war, it works together with the state governments in such matters as civil rights, taxation, and environmental protection, among others.

On the other hand, confederalism is a system of government in which sovereign power is held by the regional governments, to which the national government is accountable. The member states are independent and separate but give certain powers to a central authority for reasons of mutual security, convenience, and efficiency. Member states are the ones that appoint the central authority, which can make rules that will pass as laws only after all constituent states have passed them.

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The basic difference is that confederalism is a system where the central government is always quite weak whereas in federalism the central government can be quite a bit stronger.

In a confederal system, the "lower" levels of government (states, for example) have all the power.  They give whatever power they like to the national government.  A modern example is the UN where the UN only has what powers the member countries give it.

In federalism, there is a founding document (like the US Constitution) that spells out what powers are given to the central government and what powers are kept by the states.  The state governments do not determine what powers the national government has.  Instead, the constitution determines this.

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