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What happens if you break out of the prison?

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Most escaped prisoners get caught. You may notice that there are signs near prisons warning the public not to pick up hitchhikers. Typically the public is also warned using the media to look out for the prisoner. The police will also keep an eye upon friends and family of the prisoner should they try to aid the escapee. The clich├ęs about trackers and hunting dogs also happens to be true. Railroad cops will also be on the lookout on trains.

It used to be true that many prisoners tried to escape to Mexico. But Mexico extradites now. Most other nations also have extradition treaties. So generally prisoners will try to change their appearance and hide within the US. They may use surgery, changing their hair color and styles, growing beards, and avoiding public places. Many prisoners often say they feel relieved when caught.

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I assume that you're asking what happens if you get caught.  Of course, if you break out of prison the first thing that happens is that law enforcement officials try to track you down.  If they catch you, you are generally (this can vary by state in the United States) charged with the crime of escape.

The punishment for this varies by state also.  But for example, in Virginia, if you escape by "force or violence" (other than by setting fire to the prison) you are guilty of a Class 6 felony.  A Class 6 felony is punishable by a term of at least 1 year in prison but not more than 5 years.  That term in prison starts after your original term ends.

But again, it varies by state.

Is that what you're asking?

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