Published in 1914, Lafcadio’s Adventures presented for the first time in Western literature the concept of a “gratuitous act,” a motiveless crime for which the perpetrator suffers neither a guilty conscience nor a sense of moral responsibility. Previously, important writers had described crimes of passion and violence; crimes committed for flimsy or even absurd reasons; crimes premeditated or sudden. Before Gide’s novel, writers had not concerned themselves with a crime committed solely for caprice, for no purpose except amusement—an act against a victim hitherto unknown to the criminal, simply to satisfy a curiosity about what might happen as a consequence. In Fyodor Dostoevski’s classic analysis of murder in Prestupleniye i nakazaniye (1866; Crime and Punishment, 1886), the student Raskolnikov imagines himself to be a superior person who can commit a crime with impunity, but he later suffers from guilt and is punished for his crime, as much through his own conscience as through imprisonment. In another classic crime, that exposed in Joseph Conrad’s The Secret Agent: A Simple Tale (1907), Mr. Verloc attempts to blow up the Greenwich Observatory, an utterly absurd action that would create havoc among civilized people. At least Verloc’s intended crime has a motive: He is an anarchist and has been ordered by his superiors to commit the act.
Lafcadio’s crime, in contrast, is motiveless as well as...
(The entire section is 564 words.)