In the last phase of his career, Henrik Ibsen turned from the realistic social plays of his middle period toward a more psychological and, eventually, symbolic drama. He also shifted his emphasis from characters who are “normal,” if extreme, to those more obviously “abnormal.” He became fascinated by what he called the “trolls” or “demons” present in the back of the mind—that is, the irrational, subconscious side of the human personality that could erupt and dominate the actions of the most apparently stable individuals. Although there are important aspects of this transition in some of Ibsen’s earlier plays, such as Vildanden (pb. 1884; The Wild Duck, 1891) and Rosmersholm (pb. 1886; English translation, 1889), it was in The Lady from the Sea that he first overtly dramatized this new preoccupation with the “demonic.” The Lady from the Sea may lack the stature of Ibsen’s major plays, both in the level of its craftsmanship and in the depth of its perceptions, but it remains a pivotal play in his development and also offers one of the author’s most fascinating female characters.
Ellida Wangel, “the lady from the sea,” is an intelligent, sensitive, vivacious, sensuous woman. She is also, clearly, on the edge of an emotional breakdown. She feels oppressed by her domestic routine and alienated from her immediate surroundings. Her husband loves her but is unable either to understand her or to communicate with her. Ellida respects and feels gratitude toward him, but, because she feels her marriage to have been a “business arrangement,” she is unable to confide in him or to respond to him emotionally. She is even more isolated from his daughters, Boletta and Hilda, who treat Ellida as an intruder. They make this evident by celebrating their dead mother’s birthday behind her back.
Such a stifling environment is, of course, common to many of Ibsen’s great...
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