Mallanga Vatsyayana is credited with compiling the classic collection of Hindu aphorisms on love known as the Kama Sutra early in the first millennium c.e. Nothing is known about him beyond the fact that he was a student of ancient Hindu works, from which he adapted his own book. The texts of the Kama Sutra taught that human life should be directed toward three goals: dharma, or doing good works to gain religious merit; artha, acquiring wealth and fame; and kama, achieving pleasure. Sutra are aphorisms—brief instructive statements—so Kama Sutra can be translated as “aphorisms on pleasure.” The Kama Sutra contains explicit descriptions of various forms of human sexual activity, but much of it is taken up with more prosaic advice on matters such as finding a spouse, making oneself more attractive, and how spouses should treat each other. It carries the underlying message that people in love should do whatever brings them pleasure.
In 1883 the English explorer and linguist Richard Francis Burton privately published his own translation of the Kama Sutra. The public at large could not buy an unexpurgated edition of the book until 1963, when it appeared in lavishly illustrated editions in Great Britain and the United States (early editions were not illustrated). No one tried to censor the work at this time. In 1969, however, Milton Luros, an American book publisher, tried...
(The entire section is 469 words.)