The Poem

(Critical Guide to Poetry for Students)

The twenty-eight lines of “Kaleidoscope” are divided into seven four-line stanzas of Alexandrine verse (twelve-syllable lines). The rhyme scheme (abba, cddc, and so on), with alternating masculine and feminine end rhymes, is traditional in French poetry. In these seven quatrains, fragments of diverse sensory impressions of the past are presented to the reader in juxtaposed images that change like bits of colored glass in a kaleidoscope.

Paul Verlaine composed the poem during his incarceration in Brussels, after being arrested for firing at and wounding his lover, the young poet Arthur Rimbaud. The two poets had returned from London, where they had spent several months. The poem recollects images from this period spent wandering the streets of London with Rimbaud, reality obscured by alcohol, time rendered timeless by love and pleasure.

In the first stanza, the locale of the poem is established: a city street. Neither the street nor the city is real, though: It is a dream city, yet one that evokes a sensation of past experience, of déjà vu characterized by vagueness and clarity at the same time. A single image, “sun shining through a fog,” appears in the first stanza and confirms the inspiration for the poem: The sun suggests physical desire, the fog suggests London.

The second stanza opens with two auditory images. There is a “voice in the woods” and a “cry on the sea.” These sounds are surprising, for...

(The entire section is 530 words.)