Julius Caesar Themes

Julius Caesar key themes:

  • In Julius Caesar, questions of political authority feature prominently as the characters debate what gives one the right to rule—or the right to overthrow a ruler.

  • Ambition becomes a central theme as the conspirators display their own ambition by overthrowing Caesar, the man they accuse of being too ambitious to rule well.

  • Civil disorder and war result from regicide; the killing of a ruler disrupts the natural order and leads to chaos.

  • Sickness takes on significance as the conspirators believe the state is sick, then experience illness and insomnia themselves in the aftermath of Caesar’s murder.

  • Public and private lives clash as characters’ private personalities and scruples contrast with their public personas and decisions.

Primary Themes

Politics and Authority

The crux of Julius Caesar is a political issue that was as urgent in Shakespeare's Elizabethan England as it was in Caesar's day. It revolves around the question of whether the killing of a king is justifiable as a means of ending (or preventing) the tyranny of dictatorship and the loss of freedom. Brutus strikes Caesar down is the name of liberty, fearing that absolute power and Caesar's view of himself as more than a mere mortal will enslave Rome to the will of a single man. This was a problem with which the educated members of Shakespeare's society grappled, with those believing in a divine right of kings to rule pitting themselves against the claim that regicide is warranted when liberty is at stake. Brutus, at least, seems to be motivated by this Republican doctrine. It is important to note that none of the conspirators are champions of popular rule. Indeed, Brutus fears that the people will anoint Caesar as their absolute monarch (I.ii.77-78). The violent actions of the base mob confirm his view of the common people as an irrational body capable of surrendering their liberty (and that of Rome's nobles) to Caesar.

Immediately after Caesar is slain, Brutus proclaims to his fellow conspirators that "ambition's debt is paid" (III.i.82). Ambition is in fact a central theme of the play. Its centrality is underscored by Mark Antony's use of the word "ambition" in his funeral oration for Caesar. He asks the crowd the rhetorical question: "Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?" after recounting that Caesar enriched the public coffers and wept when the poor cried. If this was "ambition," Mark Antony argues, then it should be made of "sterner stuff." Having secured the people's tacit assent to the view that Caesar was not ambitious, Mark Antony then points out that Brutus claims that Caesar was ambitious and that Brutus is an "honorable" man (III.ii.90-95). The discordance here leads to the conclusion that Brutus and others were wrong about Caesar and that they are, therefore, not honorable men. Caesar, as Shakespeare clearly shows, was in fact ambitious. He is lured by Decius into coming to the Senate by the prospect of his being crowned king. Ironically, though, the most ambitious of the play's characters is not Caesar or Brutus, but Mark Antony, who exploits the situation at hand to become a member of the ruling triumvirate along with Julius Caesar's heir apparent Octavius (Augustus Caesar).


Ambition, in the conventional meaning of the word, is the cause, but not the primary motive, of the conspiracy against...

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Julius Caesar Secondary Themes

Roman Politics

The depiction of Roman politics is a major issue in Julius Caesar. The nature of this concern lies...

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