Jules Verne’s initial ambition was to be a playwright, and several of his plays and operettas were produced in Paris during the 1850’s. The first was Les Pailles rompues, produced by Alexandre Dumas, père, in 1850, which also appeared in print. Others were the librettos Colin Maillard (pb. 1853) and Les Compagnons de la Marjolaine (pr. 1855). A number of Verne’s short stories appeared in periodicals during the same period; some were collected along with the novelette “Une Fantasie du docteur Ox” in 1874. A collection of later stories was assembled for publication by Verne’s son, Michel Verne, appearing under the title Hier et demain (1910; Yesterday and Tomorrow, 1965). Verne also wrote various nonfictional works on the history of exploration and took over from Théophile Lavellée a multivolume project called Géographie illustrée de la France et de ses colonies, which was issued in the period 1867-1868. Many of his novels were adapted to dramatic form and were usually represented as collaborations when produced or subsequently published as plays. Of his early articles, the most important is an essay on Edgar Allan Poe that he published in 1864 in the journal Musée des familles.