Arreola, Juan José (Short Story Criticism)
Juan José Arreola 1918-
Mexican short story writer, novelist, essayist, nonfiction writer, and playwright.
Hailed as Mexico's premier experimental short story writer of the twentieth century, Arreola is best known for his allegorical tales that explore the nature of human existence in a haphazard, dreamlike, and sometimes insane world. He is also recognized as one of the first Mexican writers to abandon realism in favor of fables and parables; in his stories he uses elements of fantasy to underscore existentialist and absurdist ideas and offers readers bewildering yet humorous glimpses into complexities of the human condition. Arreola's short fiction has been compared to that of Franz Kafka and Albert Camus. Although he is little known outside his native Mexico, Arreola has served as literary inspiration for a legion of Mexican writers who have sought to transform their country's realistic literary tradition by introducing elements of magical realism, satire, and allegory.
Arreola was born in Mexico in 1918, the fourth of fourteen children. As a youngster, he earned such a reputation for his ability to memorize stories and poems he had either read or heard that he was given the job of announcing all public functions in his hometown of Zapotlán. His family's financial difficulties forced him to leave school at age twelve, but Arreola's appetite for reading, memorizing, and reciting continued as he apprenticed for a master bookbinder and printing press. In 1939 Arreola moved to Mexico City to study drama, but his theater career was short-lived because of severe post-performance depressions. He took a job as a secondary school teacher in 1940, the same year his first short story was published in his hometown newspaper.
In 1943 Arreola and a group of literary friends, including the distinguished Mexican writer Juan Rulfo, created their own literary journals, Pan and Eos. The publication in Eos of Arreola's short story “Hizo el bien mientras vivió” (“He Did Good While He Lived”) marked the fledgling writer as an important new voice in Mexican literature. The following year Arreola married. When the relationship ended in divorce soon thereafter, Arreola suffered a nervous breakdown and became seriously ill. In 1945 he left to study drama in France on a scholarship from the French government, but bad health and attacks of depression forced him to return to Mexico City in 1946. For the next few years Arreola worked as a proofreader, French translator, and writer of dust jacket blurbs for Fondo de Cultura Económica, Mexico's largest publishing company.
In 1949 Arreola produced his first volume of short stories, Varia invención (Various Inventions). Despite its commercial failure, his employer, the Fondo, released a second collection, Confabulario. In 1954 his play, La hora de todos (Moment of Truth), about a man who must sit in judgement of his own life, won the Xavier Villaurrutia Theater Prize despite being dismissed by critics. The next year he released Confabulario y Varia invenció (Confabulario and Other Inventions), which combined new stories with previously published pieces. In 1958 new stories appeared in Punta de plata, and in 1962 Arreola republished all his existing work along with many new stories under the title Confabulario total. Arreola's only novel, La feria (The Fair), a semi-autobiographical work about growing up in Zapotlán, appeared in 1963.
For the next thirty-five years Arreola produced few new works, but his fame in Mexico as a writer of supreme wit and erudition continued to grow. He also earned a reputation for his frequent public appearances on television and interviews in which he would respond with ironic humor and storytelling—and without preparation—to questions put before him. Two books of Arreola's witticisms and reflections were published in the 1970s under the titles La palabra educatión (The Word Education) and Y ahora la mujer … (And now, Woman), and in 1976 he released Inventario (Inventory), essays on life and literature. Throughout the 1980s he appeared on television, resumed teaching, and frequently published stories and essays in Mexican magazines. He lives in Mexico City.
Major Works of Short Fiction
Arreola published three separate volumes of short fiction in his career. He would continuously combine, revise, and resequence those pieces in later compilations. All the stories in these collections exhibit Arreola's trademark brevity, humor, and sense of the absurdity of life. None is simple or straightforward, and the stories often leave the reader with more questions than answers. Varia invención, a collection of eighteen tales, explores the broad themes of paranoia, alienation, love and religious faith, but each is written in such a radically different style that it becomes clear Arreola means to mimic a variety of literary techniques. Confabulario, a collection of over thirty short stories, also displays Arreola's talent for writing in a range of styles, and include stories of magic realism, Kafka-like tales of existential dread and absurdity, fables, and pseudobiographies. Punta de plata, a collection of short lyrical prose descriptions of wild animals that are intended as allegories of the beastly qualities of man, is the only volume that seems to be held together by a strong thematic focus.
The tales in Varia invenciónand Confabulario deal with the problem of existential angst, pessimistic portrayals of human possibilities, and make obscure references to literary genres and historical figures. “Peublerina,” about a man who wakes up one morning with bull horns growing from his head, echoes Kafka's The Metamorphosis. Arreola's stories are typically cryptic, as if readers are expected to use their puzzlement to think more deeply about the story's implications. In “El discípulo,” a story about a young artist who asks his master for advice on becoming a better painter, the teacher draws a rough outline of a woman, which he declares beautiful. Yet as he sketches in more and more detail he becomes less satisfied with the outcome. In the end the teacher rips the picture in half and throws the pieces in the fire. The best art, Arreola is apparently saying, is not detailed but only offers the barest outlines that the viewer must complete for himself.
Arreola's most famous short story, “El guardagujas,” is a puzzling tale about a man who wishes to take a train to a certain location, but upon arrival at the station is told by the switchman that his chances of ever seeing a train—let alone of ever arriving at his intended destination—are very slim. The switchman tells how in some places the train tracks are nothing more than chalk lines, and how elsewhere no bridge exists so that passengers must take the train apart and carry the pieces to be reassembled down the line. The passenger eventually becomes so confused that he forgets where he intended to go, at which point the switchman and his toy lantern disappear into the distance. Like most of Arreola's stories, “El guardagujas” can be interpreted in a variety of ways—as a allegory of the pitfalls of the Mexican train system, an existential horror story of life's absurdities and human limitation, and the author's desire to laugh in spite of the insanities of the world and human interaction.
With the exception of the pieces in Punta de plata, Arreola's stories are most remarkable for the writer's mastery of a variety of literary styles. Some stories read like essays, others like diaries or confessionals, and many are based on obscure works from various countries and periods. Plot and character development are usually minimal, with tension created by a series of confusing occurrences or mental crises. Like those works of the absurdist or existentialist writers with whom he is compared, the short stories of Arreola invite a range of interpretations.
The reception of Arreola's first collection of short stories, Varia invención, was disappointing. Not only did the volume fail commercially, but what little critical attention was paid to it tended to stress that the stories had little to do with Mexican politics or social conditions. This was a complaint that continued to be levelled at his works, as Arreola's stories show more concern with unraveling the mysteries of the human condition than offering social commentary on Mexican life. The first volume of stories did, however, raise Fondo's estimation of Arreola, and their publication of Confabulario, with its similarly rich array of subject matter and literary genres, established Arreola as an important Mexican short story writer. The short stories in Varia invención and Confabulario have been compared to the writings of Kafka, Camus, and Jorge Luis Borges because of their thematic similarities. The critical commentary on the second volume was sparse; while they drew praise for their imagination and humor, many commentators did not understand or appreciate Arreola's nonrealistic literary technique. His use of fantasy also again raised the charge that conditions in Mexico demanded a more realistic appraisal of Mexican life and social inequalities. Punta de plata, the collection of allegorical stories based on the physical characteristics of animals at the zoo, was warmly received for its descriptive, lyrical prose.
Despite having established a sure literary standing at home, Arreola remains almost unknown outside Mexico. Scholarly appraisal of the stories in English is limited. The translation of his Confabulario total into English in 1964 prompted a few English-speaking critics to praise his subtle descriptions and wry humor, and a few commentators since then have offered appraisals of his work. Most tend to discuss the meanings of and influences that can be detected in the stories, particularly “The Switchman.” In Mexico today, Arreola's fame has as much to do with his arresting public personality and ability to narrate stories at will—either from memory or extemporaneously—as it does with his written work. Many of his supporters bemoan the fact that Arreola's limited reputation is the result of the secondary consideration that literary circles place on the short story genre in general, a form that Arreola finds most suited to his personal and artistic concerns. He is considered one of the pioneers of nonrealistic Mexican literature, and his influence is clearly visible in the works of younger Mexican writers such as Jorge Arturo Ojeda and Hugo Hiriat, who have expanded upon their master's experimental innovations.
“Hizo el bien mientras vivió” (short story) 1943
“Gunther Stapenhorst” (short story) 1946
Varia invención (short stories) 1949
Confabulario (short stories) 1952
Confabulario y Varia invención Confabulario and Other Inventions (short stories) 1955
Punta de plata (short stories) 1958
Confabulario total (short stories) 1962
La hora de todos (drama) 1954
La feria The Fair (novel) 1963
La palabra educación (nonfiction) 1973
Y ahora la mujer … (nonfiction)...
(The entire section is 64 words.)
Seymour Menton (essay date 1959)
SOURCE: “Juan José Arreola and the Twentieth Century Short Story,” in Hispania, Vol. 42, No. 3, September, 1959, pp. 295-308.
[In the following essay, Menton discusses the wide range of literary styles and themes of the short stories in Varia invención and Confabulario, concluding that Arreola is Mexico's greatest short story writer.]
The first half of the twentieth century has seen the emergence and triumph of the short story as a full-fledged literary genre.1 Peculiarly adapted to our accelerated tempo of life and to our mass means of communication, the short story has intrigued and challenged the best writers of our times. In addition...
(The entire section is 9096 words.)
George D. Schade (essay date 1964)
SOURCE: Introduction to Confabulario and Other Inventions, University of Texas Press, 1964, pp. vii-xi.
[In the following introduction to Arreola's Confabulario and Other Inventions, Schade praises the scope, wit, and literary technique of Arreola's short stories.]
In the last twenty years or so Mexican literature has been greatly enriched by the works of a group of extremely talented writers both in poetry and in prose. Octavio Paz (1914), Agustín Yáñez (1904), Juan Rulfo (1918), and Rosario Castellanos (1925) have already been translated into English and other languages and their work has been greeted with critical acclaim in Europe and the United States as...
(The entire section is 1515 words.)
Thomas J. Tomanek (essay date 1971)
SOURCE: “The Estranged Man: Kafka's Influence on Arreola,” in Revue des Langues Vivantes Tijdschrift voor Levende Talen, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1971, pp. 305-08.
[In the following essay, Tomanek shows how several of Arreola's short stories echo the literary style and themes of Franz Kafka, with “El Guardagujas” in particular expressing the futility of man's search for identity in an insane world.]
Most of the recent anthologies of Spanish-American fiction include the short story “El Guardagujas” written by the contemporary Mexican writer Juan José Arreola1. This story deserved unanimous praise for its literary eminency. Though many critics commented on...
(The entire section is 1884 words.)
George R. McMurray (essay date 1977)
SOURCE: “Albert Camus' Concept of the Absurd and Juan José Arreola's ‘The Switchman,’” in Latin American Literary Review, Vol. 6, No. 11, Fall-Winter, 1977, pp. 30-5.
[In the following essay, McMurray contends that “The Switchman” is similar in theme to Albert Camus' The Myth of Sisyphus.]
In 1942 Albert Camus published his book of essays entitled The Myth of Sisyphus1 in which he developed his concept of the absurd in an effort to give meaning to human life in a senseless, war-torn world without God. A decade later, in 1952, the Mexican writer Juan José Arreola published “The Switchman,”2 a short story that reveals a...
(The entire section is 2633 words.)
Leonard A. Cheever (essay date 1979)
SOURCE: “The Little Girl and the Cat: ‘Kafkaesque’ Elements in Arreola's ‘The Switchman,’” in The American Hispanist, Vol. 4, Nos. 34-35, March-April, 1979, pp. 3-4.
[In the following essay, Cheever examines the style and theme of uncertainty in Arreola's “The Switchman,” which he argues is modeled after a short parable by Franz Kafka.]
For many people the works of Franz Kafka have become a kind of locus classicus for the delineation and articulation of the problems and obsessions of twentieth-century man. W. H. Auden, for example, has asserted that “had one to name the author who comes nearest to bearing the same kind of relation to our age as...
(The entire section is 2080 words.)
Read G. Gilgen (essay date 1980)
SOURCE: “Absurdist Techniques in the Short Stories of Juan José Arreola,” in Journal of Spanish Studies: Twentieth Century, Vol. 8, 1980, pp. 67-77.
[In the following essay, Gilgen maintains that Arreola's Confabulario is one of the earliest masterpieces of absurdist literature and that the humor of Arreola's short stories exposes the absurdities of everyday life and gives the reader the means to laugh at the human predicament.]
Literature of the absurd has enjoyed a special prominence in world letters during the past several years. Due in large part to the popularity and critical acclaim of the French Theater of the Absurd, absurdist expression has found...
(The entire section is 3910 words.)
Paula R. Heusinkveld (essay date 1984)
SOURCE: “Juan José Arreola: Allegorist in an Age of Uncertainty,” in Chasqui: Revista de Literatura Latinoamericana, Vol. 13, Nos. 2-3, February, 1984, pp. 33-43.
[In the following essay, Heusinkveld asserts that the short stories of Arreola's Confabulario are best classified as modern allegories.]
In this century we have seen radical changes in the genres of literature. The Theater of the Absurd breaks theatrical conventions, and the New Novel differs radically from the traditional novel. This article considers a contemporary Mexican writer whose brief prose fiction, like much literature of this century, defies easy classification. The artistic purpose of...
(The entire section is 4183 words.)
Bettina Knapp (essay date 1987)
SOURCE: “Arreola's ‘The Switchman’—The Train and the Desert Experience,” in Confluencia: Revista Hispanica de Cultura y Literatura, Vol. 3, No. 1, Fall, 1987, pp. 85-94.
[In the following essay, Knapp discusses concepts of time, reality, and man's futile attempt to structure the world in Arreola's “The Switchman.”]
Juan José Arreola's short story “The Switchman” (1951) uses the train as an allegorical device to underscore the dichotomies existing between such notions as deception and truth, capriciousness and constancy, eternality and linearity. In its machinelike capacity, the train also serves to heighten the feelings of alienation and...
(The entire section is 5993 words.)
Stamos Metzidakis (essay date 1994)
SOURCE: “From Poetic to Prosaic Animal Portraits: Arreola's ‘El Elefante,’” in Romanic Review, Vol. 85, No. 3, May, 1994, pp. 473-82.
[In the following essay, Metzidakis contends that Arreola's “El Elefante” is a perfect example of Arreola's modern approach to the traditional bestiary fables and poems of writers like Aesop and de La Fontaine.]
Although the present topic is somewhat limited by its close reading of a single short work, it relates to a stylistic phenomenon that is, in fact, much more pervasive in, and important to, modern Western literature than is often realized. For this reason, it will be useful, indeed, indispensable to analyze several...
(The entire section is 4549 words.)
Burt, John R. “This is No Way to Run a Railroad: Arreola's Allegorical Railroad and a Possible Source.” Hispania 71, No. 4 (December 1988): 806-11.
Compares Arreola's “The Switchman” to Nathaniel Hawthorne's 1843 story “The Celestial Railroad.”
Herz, Theda M. “Artistic Iconoclasm in Mexico: Countertexts of Arreola, Agustín, Avilés and Hiriart.” Chasqui: Revista de literatura latinoamericana 18, No. 1 (May 1989): 17-25.
Argues that Arreola's “subversions of the artistic tradition … mark the successful insertion of ironic poetic license and of fictional insurgency into Mexican letters”...
(The entire section is 153 words.)