Joseph Conrad Biography

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Joseph Conrad Biography

Joseph Conrad is considered one of the best English novelists (not to mention one of the most famous), but he did not actually learn to speak English until he was twenty-one. Conrad was born in Poland and orphaned at the age of eleven. He joined the French merchant navy at sixteen and spent much of his early years on the high seas. At many points in his life, he became involved in illegal activities (such as gunrunning) and was often embroiled in political intrigue. His many adventures led him to write novels such as Lord Jim, Nostromo, and his most celebrated book, Heart of Darkness. In almost all of his work, he explored loneliness, despair, and self-loathing—themes that ran through much of his own life.

Facts and Trivia

  • The Francis Ford Coppola film Apocalypse Now was inspired by and loosely based on Conrad’s Heart of Darkness.
  • In 1923, Conrad was offered a British knighthood, but he declined it.
  • Despite being an atheist throughout most of his life, he accepted last rites and was buried as a Roman Catholic.
  • Although he spent most of his life in England and was fluent in English, Conrad always spoke with a heavy accent.
  • In a 1975 essay, Chinua Achebe called Conrad a “thoroughgoing racist,” mostly due to his depiction of black Africans in Heart of Darkness. Since then, there has been an ongoing debate as to whether Conrad was racist or whether twentieth-century scholars have ignored the historical context of his work.

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(History of the World: The 20th Century)

Article abstract: Although best known as an adventure novelist, Conrad raised the form to new heights, dealing with the issues of human isolation in the face of an overwhelming natural universe, with a psychological realism that revealed the depths of his characters’ consciousness and perceptions.

Early Life

Born December 3, 1857, in Podolia, Poland, to Catholic parents of the landowning class, Joseph Conrad was originally named Jósef Teodor Konrad Nałęcz Korzeniowski (he officially changed his name when he became a naturalized British citizen in 1886). His father, Apollo Korzeniowski, had been educated at St. Petersburg University before going on to become a published poet, dramatist, and translator; it was, furthermore, because of Apollo’s political activities and outspokenness against Russian imperialism in Poland that he, with his wife, Ewa (née Bobrowska), and his four-year-old son Jósef, were exiled to Vologda, Russia, in 1862. As a result of the harsh living conditions, Conrad’s mother died of tuberculosis when he was seven, and his father died of the same disease when the boy was eleven. Thereafter, until he was seventeen, Conrad was reared by a number of guardians (all of them literary, writers or aspiring writers), the most notable a matrilineal uncle who insisted upon the value of education and responsibility. Although Conrad’s schooling came mostly from private tutors after his father’s death, by the time he left Poland at seventeen he was fluent not only in his native Polish but also in French (he knew some German and Russian as well), and he was familiar with the works of such writers as Homer, Miguel de Cervantes, William Shakespeare, Alexander Pushkin, Mikhail Lermontov, George Gordon, Lord Byron, Edgar Allan Poe, Friedrich Schiller, Victor Hugo, Charles Dickens, and Alfred de Vigny.

When Conrad left Poland in 1874, his destination being Marseilles, France, he left not to become a writer but—against his uncle’s wishes—to become a seaman. He had always been a lover of geography and travel books and had always been attracted to travel; for example, he had predicted, when he was ten or eleven and looking at a map of Africa, “When I grow up I shall go there.” (He did indeed, and the journey almost killed him.) Leaving his homeland for France and, more specifically, the sea was therefore not so much a teenager’s impulsive move as it was a departure the young Conrad had been growing toward for years. Arriving in Marseilles in October, 1874, he was to remain in France ostensibly for several years, during which time he secured berths on board French ships: first, two months after he arrived in France, as a passenger on the Mont Blanc for five months; on the same ship, as an apprentice seaman for six months; and then, on the Saint Antoine, as a steward for seven months. On these sailing vessels he traveled throughout the Caribbean area, and there is some reason to believe that he was involved in smuggling weapons to revolutionaries in Spain sometime during his residence in France, twenty-four months of which he spent pursuing shore activities. As a result of one of those activities, gambling, Conrad incurred large debts and, suffering deep depression over these debts and his more or less reckless life-style while on shore, he attempted suicide early in 1878 by shooting himself in the chest. The bullet passed through his body and out his back without touching any organs. Two months later, he began his English sea career, taking a berth on the Mavis, an English ship sailing for Constantinople.

Unromantic and demanding much hard work, Conrad’s English sea career involved him in several near-wrecks, and it situated him among men who had been shipwrecked. Apparent in much of the fiction he was to write is the ability he had to assimilate his shipmates’ stories and integrate them with his own hazardous experiences—as well as with the famous shipwrecks or near-wrecks he probably read about in the maritime histories of the day. Eight years would pass, however, after he signed on with the Mavis, before Conrad would write his first story in English, the language he struggled to learn after sailing from France. Two years after taking his berth on the English ship, furthermore, Conrad passed his examination as a second mate, and he would go on to pass two more examinations to become a captain in the English merchant service. He sailed three times to Australia (each trip taking a little more than a year), twice to Singapore, twice to India, and at least once to Java—all before sailing to the Congo in May of 1889. This latter journey was important to Conrad, who had become an English citizen in 1886, because he would be the captain of the ship, and throughout his career as an officer he had been forced to accept berths that were below what he had attained by examination (at least one biographer suggests that this must have been a blow to Conrad’s pride and sense of accomplishment, and that it may have contributed to his decision to leave the sea in favor of a writing career).

The firm that hired Conrad to sail its vessel to Africa expected him to remain in their service, in the Congo region, for three years. Besides the depressing and murderous signs of British imperialism that he witnessed while he was in the Congo, as well as the squalid living conditions of the natives he encountered, Conrad suffered nearly fatal attacks of dysentery and fever, and he left Africa in December, 1890, arriving back in England in January, 1891. He carried with him out of Africa six chapters of his first novel, Almayer’s Folly (1895), which he had begun writing in 1889 while still in England; thus, as his twenty-year-long sea career was nearing its end (he sailed only twice after his Congo journey), he was launching himself into his greater—and in many ways more difficult—writing career. He would be thirty-seven when his first novel was published, and a year later he would marry Jesse George, fifteen years his junior, with whom he would have two sons, Borys and John, born in 1898 and 1906, respectively.

Life’s Work

After the publication of Almayer’s Folly, his first novel, in 1895, Joseph Conrad’s life was devoted mainly to the writing of his short stories and novels, an endeavor seldom easy for him, with a growing family, a frequent shortage of money, an inexact knowledge of the English language, and the unyieldingly high artistic standards to which he devoted himself. When he was not writing he suffered bouts of deep depression, and when he was writing it was a painfully slow process (he confessed on several occasions, in his letters, to sitting before a blank sheet of paper for days sometimes before he could begin writing). In addition to these difficulties, throughout his adult life he suffered from hereditary gout, attacks of nerves, neuralgia, and fevers, and periods of desperate anxiety.

The odds against Conrad’s ever being able to support himself and his family as a writer were great; after all, when he began writing seriously he was a middle-aged Pole and retired sailor who had not begun learning the English language until he was in his twenties, had married and begun rearing a family in his thirties, had developed no friendships with others in the literary world, and had had his first novel accepted for publication primarily because of John Galsworthy’s influence. (A writer himself, and to be winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1932, Galsworthy had met Conrad for the first time on board a ship for which the latter was chief mate, and had agreed to read—and was favorably impressed by—the manuscript of Almayer’s Folly.) Still, Conrad’s father and several relatives had themselves been published writers, so the profession was not completely foreign to Conrad when he began writing. In any case, it is a testament to Galsworthy’s insight, as well as to Conrad’s genius, that Conrad went beyond his first novel to become one of the greatest writers of the twentieth century. The first twenty years of his thirty-year writing career were, nevertheless, a series of painful and frustrating tests in survival for Conrad and his family, as he chartered an original course through the artistic realm of exile and cunning.

Perhaps another testament to, if not Conrad’s genius, his dedication to his newly chosen writing career is that he began composing An Outcast of the Islands (1896), his second novel, even before Almayer’s Folly had been accepted for publication. Yet the financial returns to Conrad for both novels would be disappointingly slight, and it was not until 1897, with the publication of The Nigger of the “Narcissus,” that he began receiving significant critical acclaim, and instead of being compared by reviewers to Rudyard Kipling and Robert Louis Stevenson, as he had been by reviewers of his first two novels, he was now being favorably compared to Stephen Crane. Nevertheless, even though he was exhibiting an impressive prolificacy, Conrad—now married and his wife, Jesse, pregnant with their first child—was still barely able to survive financially. Thus he began writing short stories for magazines, since the financial returns for his stories could be realized much faster than those for his novels, and as it turned out the payments he received for his short stories proved to be essential to the family’s support for the twenty years that Conrad struggled to become a “popular” writer while remaining loyal to his aesthetic ideals. Between 1896 and 1917, for example, he wrote and saw published twenty-nine short stories; noteworthy, also, is that during this same period he wrote eleven novels, two book-length reminiscences, and a one-act play.

Especially painful and frustrating to Conrad was that, even though he received high praise for his fiction (from such writers as Galsworthy, H. G. Wells, W. H. Hudson, Edward Garnett, Ford Madox Ford, André Gide, and Henry James), and even though his fiction was being translated from English into French and being published in both Great Britain and the United States, public recognition—and the income therefrom—eluded Conrad for the first twenty years of his writing career. It was not until the publication of Chance, in 1913, that the tide began to turn in his favor, as this novel brought him both popularity and financial comfort in the last decade of his life. Ironically, by the time he became a “popular” writer, he had already written his greatest fiction, and his final decade represents a marked and progressive waning of his artistic powers. Nevertheless, from 1914 onward, Conrad’s fame spread with increasing rapidity: Frank N. Doubleday undertook to publish the writer’s collected works in America, H. L. Mencken proclaimed him one of the greatest writers of the twentieth century, at the height of his fame in 1923 he visited the United States by invitation, and collectors were paying more for his manuscripts than had been paid for any manuscripts ever. Then, in 1924, in his sixty-seventh year, he died suddenly at his home in Oswalds, England, a short distance from Canterbury, where he is buried.

The record of Conrad’s last thirty years, during which he and his family were plagued by both financial and seemingly endless health problems as he struggled for public recognition, is therefore essentially a record of the titles and dates of his books. After Almayer’s Folly, The Outcast of the Islands, and The Nigger of the “Narcissus” were published, between 1895 and 1897, his first book of short stories, Tales of Unrest, appeared in 1898, followed by the publication of Lord Jim in 1900. He collaborated with Ford on three novels: The first two, The Inheritors and Romance, were published in 1901 and 1903, respectively; the third, The Nature of a Crime, would not be published until 1924. Meanwhile, Typhoon and Youth: A Narrative, and Two Other Stories were published in 1902; Typhoon, and Other Stories, in 1903; Nostromo (which Conrad considered his best novel), in 1904; and The Mirror of the Sea: Memories and Impressions, in 1906. While many critics agree with Conrad’s assessment of Nostromo, it is generally regarded as only one of his five best, the other four being The Secret Agent (1907), Under Western Eyes (1910), Chance, and Victory (1915). During the periods between these novels, Conrad also produced A Set of Six (1908), A Personal Record (serial 1908-1909, book 1912), and ’Twixt Land and Sea: Tales (1912), and published his 1905 play, One Day More: A Play in One Act (1913). Thereafter, he wrote another collection of short stories, Within the Tides (1915), The Shadow-Line: A Confession (1917), The Arrow of Gold (1919), The Rescue (1920), Notes on Life and Letters (1921), The Secret Agent, Drama in Four Acts (1921), The Rover (1923), and Laughing Anne: A Play (1923). At the time of his death, he was engaged in writing his final book, Suspense: A Napoleonic Novel, which was published in its unfinished form in 1925. Also published after his death were Tales of Hearsay (1925), Last Essays (1926), and The Sisters (1928).


Early in his writing career, Conrad was a devotee of some of the formalist ideas of the French Symbolists, as well as of Gustave Flaubert (he told one friend, for example, that it was Madame Bovary that had prompted him to begin writing fiction; in fact, he began writing Almayer’s Folly on the flyleaves and inside the front and back covers of his copy of Flaubert’s novel). Certainly in Conrad’s early fiction (such as Almayer’s Folly, The Outcast of the Islands, and The Nigger of the “Narcissus”), the reader can sense his striving after symbolic sensory expression, tone, and color. Yet as a prose stylist, Conrad was to go beyond his early influences by creating his own impressionistic fictional method, an essential characteristic of which is the communication of synesthesiacal sensations. “My task,” he said, “is, by the power of the written word, to make you hear, to make you feel—it is, before all, to make you see. That—and no more, and it is everything.” His artistic aim was, then, to “reach the spring of responsive emotions” in his readers through sensory appeal.

At least one critic has suggested that it was probably from studying the work of Flaubert that Conrad learned that action in fiction should be rendered in terms of situation and scene, instead of being expressed from the author’s point of view. Yet, in this regard too, Conrad moved well beyond derivation and mastered such a rendering of action through his characteristic use of the voice and felt presence of a narrator—one often the agent, sometimes the victim, or sometimes the humanly fallible judge of a given drama. In such early stories as “Karain,” “The Idiots,” “The Lagoon,” “Youth,” Heart of Darkness (1902), and “Falk,” Conrad uses the first-person narrative strategy; there is the definite presence of an “I” in The Nigger of the “Narcissus”; Marlow narrates Lord Jim (just as he does “Youth” and Heart of Darkness); “Amy Foster” is told to the reader by Doctor Kennedy; both “Il Conde” and “The Secret Sharer” are told by their central characters; Under Western Eyes is told by a professor of languages who translates the “text” from Russian and interprets it for the reader; the character of Davidson and his narrative contribution shade Victory; and the omniscient narrative voice of Nostromo frequently gives way to certain characters’ personal reflections. In short, while Conrad’s use of first-person narration serves to create a sense of immediacy in a given story’s action (because that same sense of immediacy has been injected into a given situation and scene), it also serves as one of the most salient features of Conrad’s unique kind of storytelling; that is, he repeatedly dramatizes the act of sympathetic identification with tormented, confused, and alienated individuals, most of whom seem acutely conscious of their personal limitations and losses.

It may seem paradoxical that Conrad—in whose fiction individuality, set against the homogeneity and complacency imposed upon humans by societies advocating behavioral relativism, is the sine qua non—would populate his fictional gallery with individuals who are outcasts because of various emotional, psychological, and/or moral flaws, and then invite his readers into the gallery and demand that they identify sympathetically with the denizens imprisoned there. Yet, one needs only to read The Nigger of the “Narcissus,” “The Secret Sharer,” Heart of Darkness, Nostromo, The Secret Agent, or Under Western Eyes to see that Conrad believed that the success of any political idea, any society, depends upon the individual—especially upon the one who is conscious of his will to power, control, and domination, yet cautious about succumbing to their allure. In a sense, then, Conrad demands that his readers participate in the struggles germane to individuality, and that they see each of his flawed characters as Marlow came to see Jim, in Lord Jim: as “one of us.”


Allen, Jerry. The Sea Years of Joseph Conrad. New York: Doubleday Publishing Co., 1965. Though weak in his interpretations and conclusions about Conrad’s fiction, Allen has done an admirable job investigating Conrad’s sea career. Compare this book to Norman Sherry’s, cited below.

Berman, Jeffrey. Joseph Conrad: Writing as Rescue. New York: Astra Books, 1977. An analysis of Conrad’s imagination insofar as it, Berman argues, derived from his attempt at suicide in Marseilles, France, in 1878. While narrower in its focus, this book owes a large debt to Bernard Meyer’s biography.

Fleishman, Avrom. Conrad’s Politics: Community and Anarchy in the Fiction of Joseph Conrad. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1967. This study attempts to place Conrad in the English tradition of Edmund Burke and John Stuart Mill. Compare Fleishman’s discussion to Irving Howe’s chapter on Conrad in his Politics and the Novel.

Gillon, Adam. Conrad and Shakespeare. New York: Astra Books, 1976. A somewhat illuminating study of Shakespearean influence and language apparent within Conrad’s stories, with an especially informative chapter, “Conrad and Poland.”

Gillon, Adam. The Eternal Solitary: A Study of Joseph Conrad. New York: Bookman, 1960. Also an excellent study of the theme of isolation in Conrad’s fiction.

Gordon, John Dozier. Joseph Conrad: The Making of a Novelist. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1940. The discussion of Conrad’s early novels is excellent, in this classic of Conrad scholarship. Serious Conrad scholarship began with this work, which was especially important in the revival of interest in Conrad’s work in the 1940’s and 1950’s.

Howe, Irving. “Conrad: Order and Anarchy.” In Politics and the Novel. New York: Horizon Press, 1957.

Jean-Aubry, Gerard. Joseph Conrad: Life and Letters. New York: Doubleday Publishing Co., 1927. The first thorough, well-documented account of Conrad’s life.

Karl, Frederick R. Joseph Conrad: The Three Lives. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1979. This book is, and will remain, the definitive Conrad biography, elucidating as it does Conrad’s life in Poland, on the seas, and in England. The well-documented study is also replete with generously thorough analyses of Conrad’s major works, as well as of his artistic development and political orientation. Karl tends at times to be stiltedly (and quite needlessly) insistent upon where and how his views differ from those of other interpreters of Conrad’s life and work, especially with regard to Gerard Jean-Aubry’s biography.

Meyer, Bernard. Joseph Conrad: A Psychoanalytic Biography. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1967. An important and indispensable reading of Conrad’s life and work, giving special attention to the writer’s mother worship, illnesses, and fetishes.

Morf, Gustav. The Polish Heritage of Joseph Conrad. London: Sampson, Low, Marston, 1930. The forerunner in an area of Conrad scholarship that has become increasingly important to critical discussions of the writer’s life and work, this study attempts to delineate the extent to which Conrad’s fiction is tied to his Polish background. See also Morf’s The Polish Shades and Ghosts of Joseph Conrad (New York: Astra Books, 1976).

Sherry, Norman. Conrad’s Eastern World. Cambridge, England: At the University Press, 1966. A good discussion of the influence Conrad’s sea career had on his fiction.


(Short Stories for Students)

Joseph Conrad Published by Gale Cengage

Joseph Conrad was born Jozef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski on December 3, 1857, in Berdichev, Poland. Conrad's parents were exiled to Northern Russia in 1862 and both of them died before Conrad was eleven. He was then supported and raised by various relatives, including his maternal uncle, Tadeusz Bobrowski, a prosperous lawyer who provided financial aid until Conrad was in his thirties. Conrad received sporadic and irregular schooling and was often ill. He joined the British merchant marines in 1878 and traveled to Africa, Australia India and the Orient. These experiences would later aid and inform his writing. Due to poor health, Conrad was forced to retire from the merchant marines, and in 1894 he began a career as a writer. It was not until 1913, with the publication of Chance, that Conrad became an acclaimed writer.

Most of Conrad's stories were inspired by his experiences at sea: Lord Jim was a story that he had heard about the ship the Jeddah; The Nigger of the Narcissus was based on his adventures from Bombay to England; "The Secret Sharer" was taken from an actual incident aboard the Cutty Sark in 1880; and Heart of Darkness, Conrad's most famous work, is a fictional account of the author's own experience in the Belgian Congo. On August 3, 1924 Joseph Conrad died at the age of 66 and was buried in Canterbury, England.


(Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults)

Joseph Conrad was born Josef Teodor Konrad Nalecz Korzeniowski near Berdyczew, Poland, on December 3, 1857. His father was an idealist—a poet, translator of Shakespeare, and Polish patriot whose political activities prompted the family's exile to northern Russia in 1862. His mother, who came from an influential family of landowners, died of the Siberian cold, when Joseph was eight years old. His father died four years later and Conrad's well to do uncle Tadeusz Bobrowski took charge of the twelve-year-old boy, returning him to Poland. Conrad attended St. Anne school in Krakow for five years, and as a graduation present his uncle gave him a European tour. In Venice he saw the sea for the first time and vowed to become part of it. His formal education completed, Conrad nonetheless remained an avid reader, culling his impressive knowledge of literature from works written in Russian, French, and English.

Conrad left Poland for Marseilles, France, where he planned to become a seaman. With his uncle's money, the seventeen-year-old purchased part interest in a boat that smuggled Spanish arms into France—an intrigue that provided material for his novel The Arrow of Gold (1919). Although the facts remain sketchy, his adventures in Marseilles ended badly, and in 1878 Conrad signed on the British ship Mavis. Thus began a remarkable career in which Conrad, a foreigner, who initially spoke no English, rose to the rank of captain in the world's most powerful navy. Even more remarkable than his naval career, however, was the literary career, inspired, in large part, by Conrad's years in the British merchant marine fleet. Raised speaking Polish, Conrad wrote exclusively in English, becoming an undisputed master of its nuances and the creator of the language's most popular sea stories. He died in Bishopsbourne, England, on August 3, 1924; he is buried in nearby Canterbury.

Conrad's works enjoyed a resurgence in popularity during the 1940s. The subject of extensive biographical and critical attention since the 1950s, Conrad holds a particular attraction for present-day readers, many of whom find in his work elements of fatalism and nihilism well suited to postmodern literature and modern life. The works that won him popularity during his lifetime, Chance (1913) and Victory (1915), are not those that have since come to prominence. His most popular works today are Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, Youth, "The Lagoon," "The Secret Sharer," The Nigger of the "Narcissus", and "Typhoon." Conrad's political novels—Nostromo, The Secret Agent, and Under Western Eyes —have also received increasing critical and popular attention as a result of both their literary merits and the continuing public attention fixed upon worldwide terrorism, the nuclear arms race, and political and economic unrest in Central and South America.


(Novels for Students)

Conrad was born Teodor Józef Konrad Nalecz Korzeniowski on December 3, 1857, in the Polish Ukraine. He was an only child to his parents. His father, Apollo Nalecz, was mainly a poet and translator throughout his life. His mother, Ewa Bo-browska Korzeniowski, was a frail woman, who had come from a good family. Throughout his life, Conrad experienced loss, alienation, and rejection. This trend began with the loss of his parents during childhood. His father allegedly took part in anti-Russian activities and was sent into exile in northern Russia. Together the family endured exile in a harsh land of scarcity and illness, until Conrad' s mother died of tuberculosis, sending his father into deep depression. Conrad was sent to his uncle's, and his father died four years later, a profound event in the young Conrad's life.

After receiving his education in Poland, Conrad took a trip through Europe and decided not to return to his homeland. Instead, in 1874, he moved to Marseilles, France, so that he could follow his dream of going to sea. He gained experience as a seaman, and in 1878, at the age of twenty-one, he saw England for the first time and began to sail on English vessels, where he also started to learn the English language; in 1886, Conrad became an Eng-lish citizen. Conrad's experiences during his twenty years on the sea—during which time he rose through the ranks of the British Merchant Service—gave him the basis for many of his novels, starting with his first novel, Almayer's Folly, pub-lished in English in 1895. Conrad had started writing this novel while aboard a river steamer in the Congo. By the time the novel was published, Conrad was done with his life at sea, and he settled into the writing life. Conrad followed up his first novel with a number of other novels based on his maritime experiences, including Heart of Darkness (1899), one of Conrad's most famous works, and Lord Jim (1900), considered by many to be his greatest novel.

In any case, Lord Jim belongs to Conrad's early period as a writer, when Conrad was experimenting with modern narrative techniques, which most critics regard as the high point of his literary artistry. Following Lord Jim, Conrad wrote quickly and prolifically, publishing three more novels over the following five years: Typhoon (1902), Nostromo (1904), and The Secret Agent (1907).

At the outbreak of World War I, Conrad and his family barely escaped being imprisoned in Poland while on vacation. In England, Conrad was offered a knighthood by the British government, which he turned down. Conrad died of a heart at-tack on August 3, 1924, in Kent, England.


(Short Stories for Students)

In a part of Russia that once belonged to Poland Joseph Conrad was born Josef Teodor Konrad Nalecz Korzeniowski on December 3, 1857, to his parents, Apollo and Evelina. Members of the landed gentry, his parents believed in liberating Poland, though from opposite extremes. Apollo Korzeniowski came from a family dedicated to the romantic idealism of their cause, eager to act, if necessary, to die for Poland. Though championing the same beliefs, Evelina Bobrowski’s family advocated working quietly for their goal, and surviving as best they could under the dictates of the occupying power. Their concerns deeply influenced Conrad’s upbringing.

Apollo devoted his life to literary interests and political involvement. He wrote plays and poems of little value, but adeptly translated Victor Hugo and Shakespeare into Polish. In 1862, Conrad’s father started a literary journal, Fortnightly Review. Politically, Apollo’s main concern centered around fortifying resistance against Russian oppression. He helped organize the National Central Committee. He joined a radical wing and was arrested before he took any action. Exiled to the Vologda region of northern Russia in 1862, Apollo longed to have his family accompany him.

Already physically fragile, Conrad’s mother suffered under the harshness of exile. The strain of imprisonment hastened her death in 1865 at thirty-four, less than three years after their exile. Authorities allowed Apollo to move to southern Russia after his wife’s death. Suffering from tuberculosis later in life, and not considered a threat anymore, Apollo returned home. He spent his last months in Cracow, where he died in 1869.

By the time Conrad was a teenager, he had suffered from his family’s political involvement. At four, he saw his father arrested; at seven, he saw his mother die; and, at eleven, he saw his father die. He was left in the care of his uncle, Thaddeus Bobrowski. These traumatic experiences stayed with Conrad for his entire life. They fueled his wish to flee Poland. Consequently, they also instilled in him feelings of desertion, betrayal, and guilt for leaving his homeland. These themes were explored deeply in his work Lord Jim.

From his parents’ tribulations, Conrad concluded that no future lay in store for him in Poland. He needed to escape to fashion a life based on his inner promptings. His desire to see other countries led him to say as he looked at a map of Africa, “When I grow up I shall go there.” That place was the Belgian Congo, which became the germ for Heart of Darkness.

By traveling, Conrad could secure economic independence, live out adventures, and escape political unrest. Since his uncle had connections in the shipping industry and French was his second language, the French merchant marine attracted him, even though he had never seen the sea. The excitement he had read about in the works of Victor Hugo and James Fenimore Cooper could now become part of his life. His Polish relatives viewed his choice of becoming a sailor as an insult to his cultural background.

Two months before his seventeenth birthday, in 1874, Conrad left for Marseilles and a sea career. The four years he spent on French ships gave him the richness of experience he longed for. He sailed to the West Indies, and Central and South America. On his second voyage, he met Spanish rebels and smuggled guns on their behalf. With his ship wrecked on the Spanish coast, Conrad escaped to France. He fictionalized these experiences in his novels Nostromo (1904) and The Arrow of Gold (1919).

At this time he met Dona Rita, a Spanish rebel. He supposedly fought a pistol duel with an American, Captain Blunt, over her. Both were wounded. Rita and Blunt disappeared by the time Thaddeus arrived. Conrad told his uncle he had lost money gambling and had tried to commit suicide, he said nothing about the duel. Here, his adventures in France ended.

After turning twenty, Conrad switched allegiances to Britain by becoming an English seaman. He did so for two reasons: he wanted to flee the obligation to the Russian military forces, and he thought that if he learned English, he could be promoted sooner.

Modern British literature profited from Conrad’s defection from the French seas. There is a good possibility he would not have undertaken his writing career in English if he had not joined the British navy. In 1886, the same year he was naturalized as a British citizen, Conrad passed his examinations for master mariner. By then it was clear his life had settled and he had made a wise choice.

Conrad served on British ships for nearly sixteen years. As second mate, he sailed on a ship journeying between Singapore and Borneo. He sailed to the Orient on the Palestine, a ship that burned and sank off the coast of Java. He used this adventure in Youth (1902). In 1888, ten years after his switch from the French to British seas, he commanded his only ship, the Otago. His novella, The Secret Sharer, reflects this experience. His one interlude from the British service was when he piloted a river boat to the Belgian Congo, the basis for Heart of Darkness. This journey also affected his health, a consequence which may have influenced his switch from seaman to writer.

He began writing his first novel, Almayer’s Folly, in 1889, though he did not in any way consider himself a writer. He eventually submitted the manuscript in 1894; it was accepted after Edward Garnett read it. Through Garnett’s encouragement, Conrad began writing another novel. He still pursued a sea career, however, attempting to secure a command until 1898. For the next thirteen years, he wrote nearly one volume per year.

Married and with two sons, Conrad found it difficult to live off his literary earnings, even though he lived modestly in country homes. He received a Civil List pension from the British government.

After twenty years and sixteen volumes, Conrad finally achieved popular success with his novel Chance (1913). His limited audience grew to a wider acceptance.

During his literary career, Conrad met and made friends with Stephen Crane H. G. Wells Ford Madox Ford, and Henry James—influential writers of their time. Even with their friendships, he lived outside the mainstream of literary life. He was unaware of Freud’s work and other scientific advances. He knew nothing of James Joyce Virginia Woolf and D. H. Lawrence—writers with whom his work is often compared. Yet, his relative isolation did not prevent him from formulating his philosophy about art, fiction, and their relation to life. Many of the prefaces of his novels serve as his foundation for his artistic beliefs.

Often linked to Herman Melville and Jack London other writers of adventure stories, Conrad infused his work with psychological and moral implications. His characters face deep problems, ones with difficult or no answers. Their response to these questions often determines the course of their lives. Symbol and myth fill his fiction, and much of his story lies beneath the surface narrative. The adventure is merely one level of the story, the more intriguing one is buried under the plot. Reading a work by Conrad requires patience, diligence, and concentration.

From his first book, he used “Joseph Conrad” as his writing name, his difficult given name had been misspelled too many times on official sailing papers. A master craftsman and stylist, Conrad labored at the writing process. No writing came easy to him. His major works include Almayer’s Folly (1895), The Nigger of the Narcissus (1897), Lord Jim (1900), Youth, containing Heart of Darkness, (1902), Nostromo (1904), The Secret Agent (1907), The Secret Sharer (1910), Under Western Eyes (1911), and Victory (1915).

Never a healthy man, Conrad suffered from indigestion, hypochondria, and melancholia. Conrad died at his desk in 1924, at the age of sixty-six. A man who did not speak English before he was twenty-two, and did not write English until he taught himself at thirty-two, Joseph Conrad fashioned his life at sea into his life in fiction. By transforming experience into art, he established his permanence as a twentieth-century British novelist.