José Martí

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Last Updated on June 7, 2022, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 387

Biography

Foner, Philip S. An introduction to Inside the Monster, by José Martí, pp. 15-48. New York and London: Monthly Review Press, 1975.

Details Martí's biography from his birth to 1880, and provides a useful synopsis of nineteenth-century Cuban history before and parallel to Martí's life.

——. An introduction to Our America, by José Martí, pp. 11-68. New York and London: Monthly Review Press, 1977.

Provides a detailed biographical sketch of the last 15 years of Martí's life, beginning with his arrival in New York City.

Lizaso, Félix. Martí: Martyr of Cuban Independence. Translated by Esther Elise Shuler. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1953.

Well-known biography that idealizes Martí, but places him in the context of international politics and intellectual history.

Criticism

Benítez, José A. "Martí and the United States." Gramma, Havana (22 November 1981): 2.

Typifies pro-Castro arguments that Martí condemned the United States as an imperialist threat to Cuba.

Foner, Philip S. An introduction to On Education, by José Martí, pp. 11-33. New York and London: Monthly Review Press, 1979.

Explains in-depth Martí's belief that education was fundamental to the success of a free nation.

——. An introduction to Political Parties and Elections in the United States, by José Martí, pp. 3-16. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988.

Illustrates Martí's mixed regard for politics in the United States, where he saw great potential for both freedom and corruption to flourish.

Ibarra, Jorge. "Martí and Socialism." In José Martí: Revolutionary Democrat, edited by Christopher Abel and Nissa Torrents, pp. 83-107. The Athlone Press, 1986.

Analyzes Martí's relation to socalism, concluding that his ideaology was more Marxist than socialist.

Kirk, John M. "José Martí and the United States: A Further Interpretation." Journal of Latin American Studies 9, No. 2 (November 1977): 275-90.

Focuses specifically on Martí's writings about the United States and the array of interpretations they have generated from critics.

Torrents, Nissa. "Order and Passion in Amistad funestra." In José Martí: Revolutionary Democrat, edited by Christopher Abel and Nissa Torrents, pp. 176-91. The Athlone Press, 1986.

Discerns a pattern of "pure men" and "pure women" in Martí's thought that reveals fears that are not apparent in his other writings.

Turton, Peter. José Martí: Architect of Cuba's Freedom. London: Zed Books, 1986, 157 p.

Asserts that the great variety in Martí's thought belies an underlying unity rooted in the influence of German philosopher Karl Krause.

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Criticism