John Gardner Biography


(Great Authors of World Literature, Critical Edition)

John Champlin Gardner, Jr., was one of the most prolific and certainly one of the most protean and controversial major American writers of the postmodernist period. He was born in 1933 in the western New York town of Batavia, an area that was to play an important role in Gardner’s later fiction, both as setting and as source of the rural values to which he held throughout his life. Gardner possessed and propounded a particularly strong but by no means narrow-minded set of traditional values that owes much to the influence of his father, a dairy farmer, opera lover, and lay preacher, and his mother, a teacher of English. Even more important, however, was the part Gardner believed he had played in the death of his younger brother, Gilbert, in a farm accident that occurred when Gardner was twelve. Gilbert’s death left Gardner with a burden of guilt that he was never quite able to overcome but that he transformed into a narrative art quite unlike any other of its time.

First at Washington University, in St. Louis, and later as a graduate student at the University of Iowa, Gardner devoted himself to the twin pursuits that remained his lifelong preoccupations: the writing of fiction and the study of medieval literature. Until his death in 1982 Gardner managed to combine academic and nonacademic careers, settings, and characters with a degree of success that few other American “academic novelists” achieved.

His first published novel, The Resurrection, deals with the return of a dying professor of philosophy to his hometown of Batavia. Despite Gardner’s adroit handling of the novel’s shifting point of view and brilliant but understated mixing of realism and grotesquerie, The Resurrection attracted little attention. The Wreckage of Agathon fared better, thanks in large part to the appropriateness of Gardner’s story of law and order in ancient Sparta to the situation in the United States at the time of the Vietnam War. The third novel, Grendel, the Beowulf story told from the monster’s point of view, brought its author to national attention, and The Sunlight Dialogues became his first best-seller. These two works represent the diverse strains that make up the unity of Gardner’s distinctive narrative art: the one a brief, seemingly cynical, postmodern pastiche, the...

(The entire section is 961 words.)


(Literary Essentials: Short Fiction Masterpieces)

John Champlin Gardner, Jr., was born on July 21, 1933, in the farming community of Batavia in western New York, the setting of a number of his stories and novels. His literary interest can be traced back to his mother, an English teacher, and to his father, a farmer, lay preacher, and opera lover. “Bud” (Welsh for poet) began writing stories when he was eight, but it was the death of his brother Gilbert on April 4, 1945, in a farm accident for which Gardner held himself responsible, that appears to have influenced him most deeply. Gilbert’s death and the part that Gardner believed he played in it are the subject of one of his finest stories, “Redemption,” and serve as the subtext of nearly all of his fiction.

During his high school years, Gardner studied the French horn at the Eastman School of Music in nearby Rochester. He later attended DePauw University for two years (majoring in chemistry) before marrying Joan Patterson, a cousin, on June 6, 1953, and transferring to Washington University in St. Louis, where he began writing Nickel Mountain. He did his graduate work at the University of Iowa, dividing his time between the Writers’ Workshop and medieval studies, submitting a collection of stories for his M.A. thesis and a novel, “The Old Men,” for his Ph.D. dissertation. From Iowa, Gardner went on to hold faculty appointments at a succession of colleges and universities, including Oberlin College, San Francisco State...

(The entire section is 436 words.)