John Foster Dulles Criticism - Essay

William T. R. Fox (essay date 1950)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: Review of War or Peace, in American Political Science Review, Vol. XLIV, No. 3, September, 1950, pp. 751-53.

[In the following review, Fox summarizes the argument of Dulles's War or Peace, calling it "a sensible book which ought to be widely read."]

There is still a group which believes that peace is inevitable and security assured if we do the one right thing; that otherwise all is lost. What this one right thing is—create a world federation or an Atlantic Union, support the United Nations more fervently, or swear off power politics—the dwindling group is not agreed upon. Mr. Dulles makes short shrift of it (p. 204).

Against...

(The entire section is 601 words.)

Basil Rauch (essay date 1950)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: Review of War or Peace, in Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 65, No. 4, 1950, pp. 592-54.

[In the following review, Rauch calls War or Peace a "primer for Everyman" that asserts "the primacy of moral issues in international affairs," but nevertheless observes that the work occasionally fails to surmount Republican partisanism.]

This book suggests comparisons with Wendell Willkie's famous One World. In both, Republican leaders better than any Democrats stated for the whole public the form and content of evolving United States foreign policy. But Willkie's book was a rapt vision of utopia; John Foster Dulles' book is a sober redemption of...

(The entire section is 930 words.)

Theodore Rapp (essay date 1951)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: Review of War or Peace, in The South Atlantic Quarterly, Vol. 50, No. 1, January, 1951, pp. 124-26.

[In the following review, Rapp argues that Dulles's general thoughts on sustaining world peace and containing communist expansion as outlined in War or Peace are "more important than his specific recommendations."]

Mr. John Foster Dulles believes that a Third World War, though probable, is not inevitable and that an intelligent American foreign policy still has at least a good chance of keeping the peace. As in Britain, our foreign policy is bipartisan, not because of any love lost among the politicians, but because of what Stalin would call the...

(The entire section is 932 words.)

John Foster Dulles (essay date 1953)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "Morals and Power," in The Puritan Ethic in United States Foreign Policy, edited by David L. Larson, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1966, pp. 139-44.

[In the following essay, originally delivered as an address before the National War College at Washington in 1953, Dulles outlines the mechanisms of Soviet power and ideology, which, he contends, may be defeated by the "supremacy of moral law."]

Since I have been secretary of state, I have been to Europe, the Near East, and South Asia. Before that, in connection with negotiating the Japanese peace treaty, I had an excellent chance to get a firsthand look at our foreign representatives in Japan, Korea, and other...

(The entire section is 2033 words.)

Richard M. Nixon (essay date 1959)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "An Appreciation of John Foster Dulles," in Great Readings from "Life," Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1960, pp. 433-36.

[In the following essay, originally published in 1959, Nixon honors Dulles for his firmness, integrity, and skill in negotiating foreign policy as United States Secretary of State.]

I have had the privilege of knowing and working with John Foster Dulles since the time I first met him in 1948. And it was my great fortune that since the fall of 1955 the association between us was particularly close.

In a city where a political leader learns that the number of his friends goes up and down with his standing in the public...

(The entire section is 1078 words.)

Hans J. Morgenthau (essay date 1961)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "John Foster Dulles," in An Uncertain Tradition: American Secretaries of State in the Twentieth Century, edited by Norman A. Graebner, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1961, pp. 189-308.

[In the following essay, Morgenthau examines Dulles's role as Secretary of State in relation to several factors, including Congress, the President, and general public opinion. Overall, Morgenthau argues that Dulles's work was essentially a continuation of his predecessors' foreign policies, and was aimed at maintaining the status quo while appearing to be innovative.]

A contemporary American Secretary of State must perform two basic and difficult tasks: he must defend and...

(The entire section is 9215 words.)

Gordon A. Craig (essay date 1964)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "John Foster Dulles and American Statecraft," in War, Politics, and Diplomacy: Selected Essays, Frederick A. Praeger, Publishers, 1966, pp. 262-80.

[In the following essay, originally delivered as a lecture in 1964, Craig surveys Dulles's qualifications and tenure as secretary of state. While acknowledging Dulles's faults, such as occasional lapses of precision or tact, Craig emphasizes his successes and particularly grants him "credit for the recovery of western unity and will."]

It may be that some of what follows will arouse disagreement, for my subject makes this almost inevitable. Let me begin, therefore, with a statement that would be hard to contest:...

(The entire section is 8223 words.)

R. D. Challener and John Fenton (essay date 1971)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "Which Way America?: Dulles Always Knew," in American Heritage, Vol. 22, June, 1971, pp. 13, 84-93.

[In the following essay, Challener and Fenton use Dulles's correspondence and the taped recollections of his friends and colleagues to present a more complicated view of Dulles than the common stereotype of him as a one-dimensional, Christian anti-communist.]

About a dozen years ago Carol Burnett's nightclub repertoire included a number, "I Made a Fool of Myself over John Foster Dulles." In 1971, in an era of massive discontent with American foreign policy, Miss Burnett would be unwise to restore it to her program. For even though the song is pure camp, some...

(The entire section is 8787 words.)

John M. Mulder (essay date 1971)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "The Moral World of John Foster Dulles: A Presbyterian Layman and International Affairs," in Journal of Presbyterian History, Vol. 49, No. 2, Summer, 1971, pp. 157-82.

[In the following essay, Mulder investigates the religious and moral sources of Dulles's approach to international affairs.]

In his three roles as lawyer, churchman, and Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles revealed himself as a complex personality. To many there seemed to be a private Dulles—warm, cordial, flexible, knowledgeable, and articulate, as well as a public Dulles—austere, aloof, rigid, moralistic, and self-righteous. This paper is an attempt to probe something of the enigma which...

(The entire section is 9326 words.)

Ole R. Holsti (essay date 1974)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "Will the Real Dulles Please Stand Up," in International Journal, Vol. 30, No. 1, Winter, 1974-75, pp. 34-44.

[In the following essay, Holsti evaluates the largely negative assessment of Dulles presented in Townsend Hoopes's The Devil and John Foster Dulles, as well as other contemporary accounts, by comparing Dulles's record as secretary of state to that of Henry Kissinger.]

Townsend Hoopes' The Devil and John Foster Dulles is the latest addition to a growing literature on the late secretary of state. From this bibliography the interested reader can select a wide variety of interpretations. At the most favourable end of the scale we find a...

(The entire section is 3710 words.)

Richard H. Immerman (essay date 1979)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "Eisenhower and Dulles: Who Made the Decisions?," in Political Psychology, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn, 1979, pp. 21-37.

[In the following essay, Immerman puts forth evidence which questions the conventional view that Dulles dominated the president in his foreign policy decision-making during the Eisenhower administration.]

Studies of American foreign policy during the Eisenhower administration have produced several continuing controversies. Probably the most heated debate revolves around the influence of Eisenhower's secretary of state, John Foster Dulles. As the title of Ole R. Holsti's article, "Will the Real Dulles Please Stand Up," succinctly reminds us,...

(The entire section is 9585 words.)

George C. Herring and Richard H. Immerman (essay date 1984)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "Eisenhower, Dulles, and Dienbienphu: 'The Day We Didn't Go to War' Revisited," in Journal of American History, Vol. 71, No. 2, September, 1984, pp. 343-63.

[In the following essay, Herring and Immerman suggest that Dulles and Eisenhower had offered "a massive air strike to relieve the Vietminh siege of the French fortress at Dienbienphu" in 1954, thus bringing the United States close to war in Southeast Asia a decade before large-scale U.S. military involvement in Vietnam began.]

America's role in the Dienbienphu crisis of 1954 has been a source of persisting confusion and controversy. In a Washington Post story of June 7, 1954, subsequently expanded...

(The entire section is 8349 words.)

Roger Dingman (essay date 1989)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "John Foster Dulles and the Creation of the South-East Asia Treaty Organization in 1954," in International History Review, Vol. 11, No. 3, August, 1989, pp. 457-77.

[In the following essay, Dingman discusses the successes and limitations of Dulles's involvement in the creation of SEATO, an organization that Dulles largely envisioned as designed to check possible communist aggression in Southeast Asia.]

When John Foster Dulles resigned as secretary of state in 1959, newspapers provided readers with the statistics of his statesmanship. The record was impressive: he had travelled nearly half a million miles on more than a hundred visits to forty-six countries on...

(The entire section is 7411 words.)

Ronald W. Pruessen (essay date 1990)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "John Foster Dulles and the Predicaments of Power," in John Foster Dulles and the Diplomacy of the Cold War, edited by Richard H. Immerman, Princeton University Press, 1990, pp. 23-45.

[In the following essay, Pruessen undertakes a survey of Dulles's actions and policymaking as U. S. Secretary of State. Pruessen maintains that Dulles's intellectual achievements far outnumbered his practical ones, and that his diplomatic endeavors in Europe proved much more successful than those in Asia, the Middle East, or Latin America.]

Exiled for twenty years from the White House, Republicans were straining at the bit in 1952. John Foster Dulles was certainly among them: he...

(The entire section is 8903 words.)