Last Updated on May 7, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 907
James T. Farrell was born in Chicago on February 27, 1904, the son of James and Mary Daly Farrell. Although Farrell’s father was a hardworking Chicago teamster and served as a symbol of the toil and troubles of the working classes in Farrell’s fiction, he did not make enough money to support his large family. Of the Farrells’ fifteen children, six lived to maturity. As a result of the financial pressure, James T. Farrell was moved to his maternal grandparents’ house at the age of three. That move, from dire poverty to some affluence, provided him with material advantages but at the cost of a normal family life. Later in life, Farrell observed that he was both in the events he wrote about and outside them, a situation that produced the identity problems he treats in his young protagonists.
He was educated in Catholic parochial schools. In grammar school, he was active and accomplished in sports, particularly baseball and boxing, and thereby succeeded in partially overcoming his early loneliness. Farrell’s other great early interest was religion, though his enthusiasm was primarily the product of his relationship with Sister Magdalen, the Sister Bertha of Young Lonigan: A Boyhood in Chicago Streets (1932), who encouraged him and prompted his academic interests. He attended the nearby St. Cyril High School, where he took the four-year scholastic course, which focused on religion and the classics. While he early criticized the authoritarian rigidity of his “miseducation,” he later noted that it had instilled moral values in him. At St. Cyril he was outstanding in athletics and writing (he wrote his first Danny O’Neill story there), but despite his achievements, he still did not receive the acceptance he sought—he was still, in part, the “misfit.”
After graduation in 1923, he worked at an express company. In 1924 he also enrolled in night classes at De Paul University, where he first read the work of Theodore Dreiser, the single greatest influence on Farrell’s work. In the following year, with funds saved from his job as a gasoline attendant, he entered the University of Chicago, an experience that radically changed his life. He became an avid reader, particularly in the social sciences: Sigmund Freud, Friedrich Nietzsche, Thorstein Veblen, and John Dewey transformed his devout Catholicism into a pragmatic naturalism, and novelists Dreiser, Ernest Hemingway, Sherwood Anderson, and James Joyce provided examples of literary naturalism and inspired his own literary ambitions. Farrell wrote book reviews and, in 1929, placed one of his stories in Blues, a little magazine, and commenced his work on Studs Lonigan.
After his story “Studs” appeared in This Quarter, a Paris journal, Farrell and his wife, Dorothy, whom he married in 1931, left for Paris, where, despite initial financial problems and personal calamities (their son Sean died only five days after birth), Farrell’s writing career finally prospered. After moving to the suburb of Sceaux-Robinson, he revised Young Lonigan, wrote most of Gas-House McGinty (1933), and finished many short stories, which soon appeared in The New Review, The American Mercury, and Story, among other publications. During this fruitful period, Farrell also received the welcome encouragement of poet Ezra Pound.
After he returned to New York in 1932, Farrell experienced a meteoric rise in reputation; the 1930’s became, despite a lifetime of literary productivity, his literary decade. His novels appeared with astonishing regularity: Young Lonigan, Gas-House McGinty, The Young Manhood of Studs Lonigan (1934), Judgment Day (1935), and the culminating Studs Lonigan: A Trilogy (1935). Farrell was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1936, and in 1937 he received a Book-of-the-Month Club Fellowship for Studs Lonigan. His second major series, the books concerned with Danny O’Neill, began with the publication of A World I Never Made (1936). The O’Neill novel was the target of censorship; although Farrell and Vanguard Press, Farrell’s regular publisher, were cleared of the charges against them, the censorship issue continued to plague Farrell throughout his career.
As a writer with strong sociopolitical views, it was inevitable that Farrell would be embroiled in the political controversies of the times. He joined the League of American Writers, a communist-controlled organization, in 1935, and in 1936 supported the Socialist ticket; yet in spite of early left-wing praise for his “proletarian” writing, he was no doctrinaire communist. He opposed the communist literary critics, such as Granville Hicks, who equated left-wing propaganda with literary merit. His A Note on Literary Criticism (1936) espoused the dual function of literature: It should have both aesthetic and functional purposes. He retained his liberal views and spent the rest of his life working for various liberal causes and organizations. For example, he served as chairman of the Civil Rights Defense Committee (1941) and the Committee Against Jim Crow in Military Training (1950).
Although he peaked in popularity during the 1930’s, Farrell continued his writing until his death of a heart attack in New York City on August 22, 1979. More than twenty-five novels, almost twenty collections of short stories, two volumes of poetry, and some ten volumes of prose, including literary criticism, personal essays, satirical prose under his Fogarty pseudonym, and a book about the Chicago White Sox flowed from a man who wrote almost every day of his life. Because he was before the public eye as a practicing writer and a political activist, he continued to receive both critical recognition and honorary degrees from such institutions as the University of Oxford, Columbia University, and the University of Chicago—the last particularly appropriate in the light of his early years there.
Last Updated on May 7, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 104
In “On the Function of the Novel,” Farrell writes, “Novels can enable us to gain a fuller sense of participation in the culture of our own time, and in the history of human thought and feeling.” Like Dreiser, Farrell realistically documents a time, the 1930’s, and a place, Chicago’s South Side, in order to indict a society by chronicling events that produce alienated, fragmented human beings. He depicts the chronological maturation and the arrested emotional and spiritual development of his young protagonists, who cannot articulate their feelings, who cling precariously to stereotypical images of themselves, and who are ridden by self-doubt and fear.
Last Updated on May 7, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 152
Born and reared on the south side of Chicago, James Thomas Farrell was educated at a series of parochial schools, attended the University of Chicago sporadically for three years during the 1920’s, and attended New York University in 1941. The son and grandson of Irish teamsters, Farrell was also a teamster for a time and worked, variously, as a cigar-store clerk, a filling-station attendant, and a part-time newspaper reporter. He married Dorothy Patricia Butler in 1931, was divorced, married the actress Hortense Alden, whom he also divorced, and remarried Dorothy Butler Farrell in 1955, but they separated three years later. He had one child by his second wife. He received a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship for creative writing in 1936, a Book-of-the-Month Club prize for Studs Lonigan in 1937, and a Newberry Library Fellowship in 1949. He was a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters and the Overseas Press Club. He died in 1979.
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