Other Literary Forms
James Joyce’s name is synonymous with twentieth century fiction, to a revolution in which he devoted himself with remarkable single-mindedness. The results are to be found in three extremely influential works of fiction—A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1914-1915, serial; 1916, book), Ulysses (1922), and Finnegans Wake (1939). Though his work in other genres is of much less significance, Joyce also wrote two books of poetry, as well as one play. His youthful critical essays, crucial to an understanding of his artistic origins, were collected posthumously and edited by Richard Ellmann and Ellsworth Mason as The Critical Writings of James Joyce (1959). The raw material for A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, edited by Theodore Spencer, was also published posthumously as Stephen Hero (1944).