Other literary forms
In addition to his long fiction, J. M. Coetzee (kuht-SEE-uh) has published a number of book reviews and essays, primarily dealing with South African authors and Thomas Hardy. He has also published translations of other writers’ work into Afrikaans, Dutch, French, and German. In White Writing: On the Culture of Letters in South Africa (1988), he surveys South African literature from its beginnings up to, but not including, World War II. Coetzee has also published two memoirs, Boyhood: Scenes from Provincial Life (1997) and Youth: Scenes from Provincial Life II (2002), both written in the third person. In these works, with characteristic restraint, he tells of his youth in the dreary suburbs and farms of Cape Town Province and of the growing awareness of contradiction that led to his becoming a writer. Coetzee continually publishes scholarly essays and speeches on literature, animal rights, censorship, and other topics. Many of these have been collected in Inner Workings: Literary Essays, 2000-2005 (2007).