Isaac Bashevis Singer Singer, Isaac Bashevis (Vol. 111) - Essay


(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

Isaac Bashevis Singer 1904–1991

(Born Icek-Hersz Zynger; first name also transliterated as Isak, Isaak, Yitskhok; has also written under the pseudonyms Isaac Tse, Isaac Bashevis, and Isaac Warshofksy [also transliterated as Varshavski, Warshavksi, Warshawsky, and Warshovsky]) Polish-born American novelist, short story writer, memoirist, children's writer, playwright, essayist, and translator.

The following entry presents an overview of Singer's career through 1996. For further information on his life and works, see CLC, Volumes 1, 3, 6, 9, 11, 15, 23, 38, and 69.

Singer's acclaimed novels and short fiction, especially Der Satan in Gorey (1935; Satan in Goray) and the title story from Gimpel tam un andere Dertseylungen (1950; Gimpel the Fool and Other Stories), are distinguished for their profound insight into philosophical dilemmas concerning personal spirituality, existential alienation, and cultural destiny. While Singer's narratives often feature Polish-Jewish history and traditional life in the Eastern European village or shtetl, by incorporating elements of legend and the supernatural, such stories transcend their provincial settings and subjects to achieve universality. Singer's preoccupation with the paradoxical duality of human nature, particularly surrounding aspects of faith and doubt, suffuses his fiction with a complex moral vision that challenges the assumptions of both biblical tradition and scientific rationalism. A master of Yiddish prose and Nobel laureate, Singer is recognized as a consummate storyteller and a penetrating observer of the human condition.

Biographical Information

Born in Leoncin, Poland, a shtetl near Warsaw, Singer was raised in a traditional orthodox Jewish home dominated by pious religious contemplation and instruction; Singer's father was a Hasidic rabbi and his mother descended from distinguished rabbis and talmudic scholars. At age four, Singer moved with his family to Warsaw where he spent most of his childhood. Under the influence of his older brother, novelist Israel Joshua Singer, Singer was introduced to secular literature and contemporary intellectuals whose skepticism defied the theological teachings of his upbringing. Singer's development was further shaped by the philosophy of Benedict de Spinoza, clandestine readings in the Cabal (a religious text based on mystical interpretation of the Scriptures), and the works of Fedor Dostoevsky, Edgar Allan Poe, and Leo Tolstoy—all forbidden by his father. In 1917, Singer relocated with his mother to Bilgoray, a shtetl near the Austrian border, where he lived for several years with his grandparents. He began formal studies at Tachkemoni Rabbinical Seminary in Warsaw in 1921, but soon left to take up work as a proofreader for Literarische Bletter, a Yiddish literary journal edited by his brother. Singer published his first story, "Oyf der Elter," translated in English as "In Old Age," in Literarische Bletter in 1927 under the pseudonym Tse. While continuing to write creatively, Singer supported himself by translating popular fiction and several major novels into Yiddish, including works by Knut Hamsun, Erich Maria Remarques's All Quiet on the Western Front, and Thomas Mann's The Magic Mountain. Singer's first novel, Satan in Goray, appeared in book form in 1935; it was first published serially in Globus, a magazine for which he served as associate editor, in 1934. All of Singer's subsequent novels were first written and serialized in Yiddish. Singer immigrated to the United States in 1935, permanently leaving his native Poland and an estranged lover, Runya, with whom he had a son. Reunited with Israel Joshua in New York, Singer began work as a freelance writer for the Jewish Daily Forward, for which he became a regular contributor until the end of his life. In 1940, Singer married Alma Wasserman, a German-Jewish immigrant whom he met in the United States. Upon his brother's death in 1944, Singer began the novel Di Familie Mushkat (1950; The Family Moskat) and produced Mayn Tatn's Bes-din Shtub (1956; In My Father's Court), the first of several autobiographic narratives. With the 1953 publication of Saul Bellow's English translation of "Gimpel the Fool" in Partisan Review, Singer garnered an English-speaking readership and an international reputation. An English translation of Satan in Goray appeared in 1955, followed by Gimpel the Fool and Other Stories in 1957. During the next decade Singer produced additional novels, including Kunstmakher fun Lublin (1960; The Magician of Lublin), Sonim, di Geschichte fun a Liebe (1966; Enemies: A Love Story), numerous short stories collected in The Spinoza of Market Street (1961), Short Friday and Other Stories (1964), and The Seance and Other Stories (1968), as well as award-winning children's books. Singer maintained a prolific literary output during the 1970s with several collections of short fiction, notably A Crown of Feathers and Other Stories (1973) and Old Love and Other Stories (1979), the drama Yentl, the Yeshiva Boy (1974) which was adapted into the popular film Yentl in 1983, and the novel Shosha (1978). Singer was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1978. He continued to produce highly regarded fiction, children's works, and memoirs until his death in 1991 after a series of strokes.

Major Works

Singer's fiction typically explores the individual's struggle to realize the limits of human potential and free will in relation to supernatural forces and fatalistic universal law. His first novel, Satan in Goray, contains many recurring themes and narrative devices employed in his subsequent novels and short fiction. Set in a medieval Polish shtetl after the Cossack pogroms of 1648, Satan in Goray chronicles the negative effects of the Jewish messianic movement surrounding Sabbatai Zevi, a charlatan from Smyrna who proclaimed himself the Messiah, though later converted to Islam. Presented as an archaic folk story, the narrative centers on Rechele, a psychologically tormented woman whose satanic hallucinations are mistakenly interpreted by the zealous villagers as prophetic visions. When the Messiah fails to appear and news of Sabbatai Zevi's apostasy arrives, the inhabitants of Goray revert to the orthodox religion and traditions of their community to recover from the apocalyptic excesses of mysticism. As in much of his fiction, Singer incorporates the macabre, divine, and demonic to imbue the story with a fantastic quality that evokes the timelessness of parable. The presence of dybbuks—transient souls who take possession of living humans, according to Jewish tradition—also play an important role in many of Singer's short stories. In "Gimpel the Fool," Singer similarly addresses religious faith in an anachronistic Old World setting. Gimpel, the protagonist and narrator of the story, is duped, ridiculed, and cuckolded by his fellow townspeople because he solemnly refuses to abandon his pious credulity for fear of introducing doubt to his belief in God. In the end, Gimpel's absolute faith sustains him despite the victimization and absurdity he is willing to endure with saint-like stoicism. The Magician of Lublin follows the escapades of Yasha Mazur, an escape artist and magician whose irrepressible sexual urges lead him into multiple extramarital relationships. When his renowned powers of deception fail and he is caught stealing, Yasha enters into a hermetic life to atone for his sins through solitary prayer and meditation. As in Satan in Goray and "Gimpel the Fool," Singer exposes the striking similarities among the attributes of madness, piety, and wisdom. Yasha, as a picaresque hero, also embodies conflicting male desires for power and hedonistic pleasure against domestic submission and diminishing potency, significantly associated by Singer with resistance to the will of God. The Family Moskat, along with The Manor (1967) and The Estate (1969), represents an epic historical trilogy that recounts the plight of Polish Jews from 1863 to the Nazi offensives of 1939. Modelled largely on Israel Joshua's realistic narrative style, Singer's vivid depiction of Jewish life in Warsaw equates the fragmentation of traditional values and the family with the degeneration of Western society in general, particularly through the central character, Asa Heshel, who abandons talmudic scholarship to become a doomed nihilist. As in other works, Singer juxtaposes the competing claims of spirituality and skepticism in the Jewish community, though the haunting reality of the Holocaust suggests the futility of both. Singer addresses the aftermath of the Holocaust in Enemies, a comical novel about the difficult postwar life of Herman Broder, a Jew who avoided the Nazi concentration camps by hiding in a Polish hayloft during the war years. Racked with guilt for escaping such suffering, particularly as the Holocaust is perceived as a defining element of contemporary Jewish identity, Broder creates vicarious torments in New York through complex relationships with female survivors and demonic fantasies. In Shosha, Singer fuses the realistic style of The Family Moskat with the allegorical tone of Satan in Goray and "Gimpel the Fool." The narrator, Aaron Greidinger, is an aspiring writer who forgoes an opportunity to flee Poland during the Second World War. Greidinger also halts his sexual adventures with various sophisticated modern women to marry Shosha, a captivating young girl who embodies the innocence and cultural tradition of the Eastern European Jews. Tragically, however, Shosha dies at the hands of the Nazis, leaving Greidinger a Holocaust survivor whose devotion to Jewish language and heritage is her legacy. In the posthumously published novel Meshugah, Greidinger reappears as a semi-autobiographic character who lives in the United States and writes serial novels for a Yiddish newspaper. Like Singer himself, Greidinger is a solitary writer who attempts to preserve traditional Jewish culture through stories about the past.

Critical Reception

Singer's evocative fiction is consistently praised for its uncanny simplicity and philosophical depth. While Satan in Goray and "Gimpel the Fool" are considered his most effective creative works, The Magician of Lublin, Enemies, Shosha, and many short stories contained in collections such as The Spinoza of Market Street and Short Fridays and Other Stories reveal Singer's narrative talent and metaphysical concerns. Though reproached by some members of the Jewish community for refusing to elevate the Jewish people as a persecuted ethnic minority, Singer's loyalty to Yiddish literature is credited with reaffirming the credibility of the near-extinct language. Other critics accuse Singer of repeating himself in subsequent stories and some cite erotic elements in his fiction as either provocative or irreverent, especially Singer's depiction of libertine characters and unabashed sexual affairs. Despite the unconcealed religious significance of his fiction, Singer's sardonic modernist sensibility and abiding interest in the debilitating effects of spiritual isolation draws frequent comparison to the existentialist writings of Albert Camus. Without resorting to didacticism or dogmatic moral judgment, Singer attempts to reconcile the mystical and absurd in both the Old and New Worlds with compassion, irony, and gentle humor.

Principal Works

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

Der Satan in Gorey [Satan in Goray] (novel) 1935
Di Familie Mushkat [The Family Moskat] (novel) 1950
Mayn Tatn's Bes-din Shtub [In My Father's Court] (memoir) 1956
Gimpel tam un andere Dertseylungen [Gimpel the Fool and Other Stories] (short stories) 1957
Kunstmakher fun Lublin [The Magician of Lublin] (novel) 1960
The Spinoza of Market Street (short stories) 1961
Der Knekht [The Slave] (novel) 1962
Short Friday and Other Stories (short stories) 1964
Mazel and Shlimazel; or, The Milk of a Lioness (for children) 1966
Sonim, di Geschichte fun a Liebe [Enemies: A Love Story] (novel) 1966
Zlateh the...

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Irving Howe (essay date April 1966)

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "I. B. Singer," in Encounter, Vol. 26, April, 1966, pp. 60-70.

[In the following essay, Howe provides an overview of Singer's literary reputation, artistic influences, and central preoccupations as expressed in his fiction.]

Would it be fair to say that you are actually writing in a somewhat artificial or illusory context, as if none of the terrible things that have happened to the Jewish people during the last two decades really did occur?

SINGER: Yes, very fair, There was a famous philosopher, Vaihinger, who wrote a book called The Philosophy of "As If" in which he showed that we all behave "as...

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Irving H. Buchen (essay date 1966)

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "Isaac Bashevis Singer and the Eternal Past," in Critique: Studies in Modern Fiction, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1966, pp. 5-18.

[In the following essay, Buchen examines elements of Singer's narrative structure that "meaningfully violate and reconstitute the reader's identity, morality and chronology" to evoke a timeless quality in his fiction. Buchen discusses The Magician of Lublin as a typical example of Singer's all-encompassing vision in which time and space converge on absolute morality.]

The basic obstacle to an understanding of the work of Isaac Bashevis Singer is its effect of critical dislocation. Thus, the few existing studies symptomatically tend to be...

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Max F. Schulz (essay date 1968)

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "Isaac Bashevis Singer, Radical Sophistication, and the Jewish-American Novel," in Southern Humanities Review, Vol. 3, 1968, pp. 60-6.

[In the following essay, Schulz discusses Singer's modern sensibility in relation to his portrayal of the social and religious attitudes of Polish Jewry from an earlier era. According to Schulz, this tension between "Old World Judaism" and "New World skepticism," as evident in Singer's fiction, represents a prominent theme in the contemporary Jewish-American novel.]

I wish in this paper to offer a generalization about the current Jewish-American novel, using as my major illustration the admittedly special case of Isaac Bashevis...

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Sarah Blacher Cohen (essay date Autumn 1982)

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "Hens to Roosters: Isaac Bashevis Singer's Female Species," in Studies in American Fiction, Vol. 10, No. 2, Autumn, 1982, pp. 173-84.

[In the following essay, Cohen considers the role of female characters in Singer's fiction through analysis of Enemies and Shosha. Cohen concludes that Singer's fiction is not misogynistic, as some feminist critics claim, but often portrays women as powerful symbolic figures that force male protagonists into uncomfortable revelations about themselves and the world.]

Isaac Bashevis Singer takes issue with those female critics who say that his fiction is misogynistic. He claims that the "liberated woman [who] suspects...

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Daniel V. Fraustino (essay date Spring 1985)

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "Gimpel the Fool: Singer's Debt to the Romantics," in Studies in Short Fiction, Vol. 22, No. 2, Spring, 1985, pp. 228-31.

[In the following essay, Fraustino draws attention to the influence of Romantic poets such as William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge on Singer's transcendent vision, particularly as evident in "Gimpel the Fool."]

"Gimpel the Fool" is generally regarded as Isaac Bashevis Singer's greatest fictional masterpiece and for good reason. Its appeal to the reader is personal and immediate. Gimpel, the narrator-protagonist, represents that child-like quality in all of us which is the source of both our humanity and our vulnerability: the need...

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Charles Isenberg (essay date Summer-Fall 1985)

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "Satan in Goray and Ironic Restitution," in Yiddish, Vol. 6, Nos. 2-3, Summer-Fall, 1985, pp. 87-102.

[In the following essay, Isenberg discusses the progressive themes of catastrophe, ambiguity, and restitution in Satan in Goray. Isenberg concludes that in this novel restitution is not redemptive, as "restitution can only be an ironic impossibility because Singer's subject is the inevitability of living after the tradition."]

Satan in Goray explores the reflection, in a remote Polish town, of the rise and degeneration of the messianic movement centering on Sabbatai Zevi, a Jew from Smyrna, whose revelation of his messianic role in May 1665...

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Dinah Pladott (essay date Summer-Fall 1985)

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "Casanova or Schlemiel? The Don Juan Archetype in I. B. Singer's Fiction," in Yiddish, Vol. 6, Nos. 2-3, Summer-Fall, 1985, pp. 55-71.

[In the following essay, Pladott examines the role of the amorous male protagonist as a central figure in Singer's fiction. According to Pladott, these recurring characters underscore man's struggle to reconcile individual desires and universal meaning.]

The popularity of I. B. Singer's fiction in recent years does not mitigate the fact that he suffers the same fate as other complex and fecund writers: he gives critics grounds for interpretations or points of emphasis that are divergent to the point of being contrary. Is he a...

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Ken Frieden (essay date September 1985)

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "I. B. Singer's Monologues of Demons," in Prooftexts, Vol. 5, No. 3, September, 1985, pp. 263-68.

[In the following essay, Frieden discusses the significance of supernatural dialogue in Singer's fiction, especially as found in "The Mirror" and "The Last Demon." Frieden notes that Singer "employs monologues in a deliberately archaic framework that disturbs our modern conceptions of literary representation and human existence."]

Some of Isaac Bashevis Singer's most powerful stories are narrated by demons. Singer employs the literary form of monologue to depict the supernatural world as a reflection of our own. But his unusual device also works allegorically, and...

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Grace Farrell Lee (essay date Fall 1985)

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "Isaac Bashevis Singer: Mediating Between the Biblical and the Modern," in Modern Language Studies, Vol. 15, No. 4, Fall, 1985, pp. 117-23.

[In the following essay, Lee examines Singer's use of Biblical metaphors to confront profound existential dilemmas. Drawing comparison to Albert Camus's The Myth of Sisyphus, Lee contends that Singer's fiction is "an uneasy meditation between the Biblical image of God who hides his face and the modern image of a cosmos empty of transcendent meaning."]

Isaac Bashevis Singer's short story "Old Love" concludes as Harry Bendiner, eighty-two year old millionaire, survivor of three wives and two children, dreams of...

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Israel Shenker (essay date 11 August 1991)

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "The Man Who Talked Back to God: Isaac Bashevis Singer, 1904–1991," in The New York Times Book Review, August 11, 1991, p. 11.

[In the following essay, Shenker recounts Singer's views on God, contemporary literature, and his own writing.]

His mind teemed with eternal questions and with plain-spoken answers. In talk and in writing he was forthright and intense, not a tentative rose water soul given to pallid thought and halfhearted expression. What he conveyed was the burden of experience shaped by trials, transformed by imagination, weighted by reflection, leavened by humor. Part prophet, part scold, writer of genius, ironist, pessimist and cynic, he did not...

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Dan Miron (essay date Winter 1992)

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "Passivity and Narration: The Spell of Bashevis Singer," translated by Uriel Miron, in Judaism, Vol. 41, No. 1, Winter, 1992, pp. 6-17.

[In the following essay, Miron contends that Singer's fiction is not typical of contemporary Yiddish literature, citing the fatalistic passivity and underlying nihilism in his work as the major point of divergence. According to Miron, Singer's characters portray a "human existence that runs from birth without will to a death without choice."]

Isaac Bashevis Singer, last of the great Yiddish story-tellers, passed away at a ripe old age, crowned with international success and renown. His death seems to carry a note of...

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Sally Ann Drucker (essay date 1992)

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "I. B. Singer's Two Holy Fools," in Yiddish, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1992, pp. 35-9.

[In the following essay, Drucker examines "wise fool" characters in "Gimpel the Fool" and Shosha. As Drucker notes, these characters achieve transcendent vision through spiritual openness rather than traditional Jewish religious study based on logical deduction.]

A gantser nar iz a halber novi. A whole fool is half a prophet.
A halber nar iz a gantser khokhem. Half a fool is a complete sage.

These proverbs, seemingly contradictory, are usually interpreted as having ironic import—yet at...

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Joel Conarroe (review date 10 April 1994)

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: "The World Is One Vast Madhouse," in The New York Times Book Review, April 10, 1994, p. 9.

[In the following review, Conarroe praises the posthumous publication of Meshugah.]

One would have to be meshugah (that is, cuckoo, crazy) not to celebrate the publication of this brief tragicomic novel by Isaac Bashevis Singer, who died in 1991. Originally written in Yiddish, Singer's group portrait of Holocaust survivors in Manhattan first appeared in serial form in The Forward during the early 1980's, when the author himself was nearly 80. He changed its original title, "Lost Souls," to Meshugah after he and Nili Wachtel translated the work into...

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Further Reading

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)


Bate, Nancy Berkowitz. "Judaism, Genius, or Gender: Women in the Fiction of Isaac Bashevis Singer." In Critical Essays on Isaac Bashevis Singer, edited by Grace Farrell, pp. 209-19. G. K. Hall & Co., 1996.

Essay in which Bate examines Singer's view of women as reflected in his treatment of female characters, particularly in Yentl, the Yeshiva Boy and "The Dead Fiddler."

Epstein, Joseph. "Our Debt to I. B. Singer." Commentary 92, No. 5 (November 1991): 31-7.

Provides an overview of Singer's fiction and major themes.


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