(Critical Survey of Literature for Students)

When the Greek invasion force, destined for Ilium, was unable to sail from Aulis because of a lack of wind, Agamemnon, the Greek commander, appealed to Calchas, a Greek seer, for aid. Calchas said that unless Agamemnon gave Iphigenia, his oldest daughter, as a sacrifice to Artemis, the Greek fleet would never sail. By trickery Agamemnon succeeded in bringing Clytemnestra, his queen, and Iphigenia to Aulis, where the maiden was offered up to propitiate the goddess. At the last moment, however, Artemis substituted a calf in Iphigenia’s place and spirited the maiden off to the barbaric land of Tauris, where she is now doomed to spend the rest of her life as a priest of Artemis. One of Iphigenia’s duties is to prepare Greek captives—any Greek apprehended in Tauris is by law condemned to die—for sacrifice in the temple of the goddess.

Iphigenia has been a priest in Tauris for many years when, one night, she has a dream that she interprets to mean that her brother Orestes had met his death; now there can be no future for her family, for Orestes was the only son.

Orestes, however, is alive; in fact, he is actually in Tauris. After he and his sister Electra murdered their mother to avenge their father’s death at her hands, the Furies pursued Orestes relentlessly. Seeking relief, Orestes is told by the Oracle of Delphi that he must procure a statue of Artemis that stands in the temple of the goddess in Tauris and take it to Athens. Orestes will then be free of the Furies.

Orestes and his friend Pylades reach the temple and are appalled at the sight of the earthly remains of the many Greeks who lost their lives in the temple. They resolve, however, to carry out their mission of stealing the statue of Artemis.

Meanwhile Iphigenia, disturbed by her dream, arouses her sister priests and asks their help in mourning the loss of her brother. In her loneliness she remembers Argos and her carefree childhood. A messenger interrupts her reverie with the report that one of two young Greeks on the shore in a frenzy slaughtered Taurian cattle that were led to the sea to bathe. The slayer is Orestes, under the influence of the Furies. In the fight that followed, Orestes and Pylades held off great numbers of Taurian peasants, but at last the peasants succeeded in capturing the two youths. The Greeks were brought to Thoas, the king of Tauris.

Iphigenia, as a priest of Artemis, directs that the strangers be brought before her. Heretofore she was always gentle with the doomed Greeks and never participated in the bloody ritual of sacrifice. Now, depressed by her dream, she is...

(The entire section is 1071 words.)