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Cate, Curtis. George Sand: A Biography. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975. This biography of Sand may help readers understand parallels between the subject matter of Indiana and her own life. Also provides an account of how Indiana was received.

Crecelius, Kathryn J. Family Romances: George Sand’s Early Novels. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987. Chronicles the early period of Sand’s literary career, when her thematic focus was directed toward rebellion against the oppression of traditional marriage. Offers criticism and interpretation of Indiana; considers the work in the context of other novels from this period in Sand’s career.

Datlof, Natalie, Jeanne Fuchs, and David A. Powell, eds. The World of George Sand. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991. Contains papers presented at the Seventh International George Sand Conference at Hofstra University in 1986. The topics range widely; a number of articles will prove useful to Indiana scholars, such as Marilyn Yalom’s “George Sand’s Poetics of Autobiography” and Margaret E. Ward and Karen Storz’s “Fanny Lewald and George Sand: Eine Lebensfrage and Indiana.”

Dickenson, Donna. George Sand: A Brave Man, the Most Womanly Woman. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988. Offers insight into Sand’s work, her life as an author, and her struggle as a woman attaining literary success in a primarily male field. Examines her open rejection of women’s roles and discusses her noted rebellions and successes.

Moers, Ellen. Literary Women. London: Women’s Press, 1978. This overview of women’s literature devotes considerable space to George Sand, exploring motivations for and themes in her works.

Naginski, Isabelle Hoog. George Sand: Writing for Her Life. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1991. This book avoids the biographical approach common to Sand criticism. Identifies four specific periods of Sand’s writing and examines each, focusing on common themes rather than on a detailed analysis of each work.

Powell, David A., ed. George Sand Today: Proceedings of the Eighth International George Sand Conference—Tours 1989. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1992. Contains essays in French and English. Of particular interest are Tamara Alvarez-Detrell’s “A Room of Her Own: The Role of the lieux from Aurore to Indiana” and “The Politics of George Sand’s Pastoral Novels,” by Marylou Gramm.

Sand, George. Story of My Life: The Autobiography of George Sand: A Group Translation. Edited and translated by Thelma Jurgrau. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991. Offers a wealth of insight into the author’s life and work. A critical introduction by Thelma Jurgrau and a historical introduction by Walter D. Gray provide insightful commentaries that set the context of Sand’s autobiography.

Schor, Naomi. George Sand and Idealism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993. An examination of feminism and idealism in Sand’s novels. Explores Sand’s Romanticism; considers the influence of society and politics on her work.

Thomson, Patricia. George Sand and the Victorians: Her Influence and Reputation in Nineteenth-Century England. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977. While not focusing on Indiana, this work provides an excellent overview of the reception given Sand’s work in England and underscores many of the gender-related issues raised by reviewers and critics.


Historical and Social Context