Historical Context

(Novels for Students)

France: The Third Republic
The Immoralist takes place in France, Europe, and North Africa during the 1890s. Michel’s...

(The entire section is 586 words.)

Literary Style

(Novels for Students)

The Immoralist was first published in 1902 without a preface. However, in later editions of the novel, Gide included...

(The entire section is 635 words.)

Bibliography and Further Reading

Cordle, Thomas, André Gide, Updated Edition, Twayne, 1993, pp. 67, 69, 71–72.

Gide, André, The Immoralist, translated by David Watson, Penguin Books, 2000, pp. 15, 34, 45, 47, 50, 69, 89, 95, 97, 98, 111, 114, 115.

—, The Immoralist, translated by Richard Howard, Alfred A. Knopf, 1970.

Guerard, Albert J., André Gide, Harvard University Press, 1951, p. 106.

Sheridan, Alan, “Introduction,” in The Immoralist, by André Gide, translated by David Watson, Penguin Books, 2000, p. x.

Further Reading
Ahmida, Ali Abdulolatif, ed., Beyond Colonialism and Nationalism in the Maghrib: History, Culture, and Politics, Palgrave, 2000. Ahmida provides a collection of critical essays by various authors on the history, culture, and politics of North Africa and Egypt in the nineteenth century.

Barnes, David S., The Making of a Social Disease: Tuberculosis in Nineteenth-Century France, University of California Press, 1995. Barnes offers a cultural, medical, and socioeconomic history of tuberculosis in France during the nineteenth century.

Benjamin, Roger, Orientalist Aesthetics: Art, Colonialism and French North Africa, 1880–1930, University of California Press, 2003. Benjamin discusses the influence of North African culture on French art during the period of the French colonial occupation.

Fryer, Jonathan, André & Oscar: Gide, Wilde, and the Gay Art of Living, Constable, 1997. Fryer examines the friendship between André Gide and Oscar Wilde in terms of homosexual identity and lifestyles during the late-nineteenth and earlytwentieth centuries.

Hayes, Jarrod, Queer Nations: Marginal Sexualities in the Maghreb, University of Chicago Press, 2000. Hayes examines representations of homosexuality in North African literature.

Merrick, Jeffrey, and Bryant T. Ragan, Jr., eds., Homosexuality in Modern France, Oxford University Press, 1996. Merrick and Ragan provide a collection of essays on the history of homosexuality in nineteenth- and twentieth-century France.

Walker, David, André Gide, Macmillan, 1990. Walker provides a critical analysis of narrative techniques in Gide’s novels.


(Great Characters in Literature)

Ames, Van Meter. André Gide, 1947.

Brennan, Joseph Gerard. Three Philosophical Novelists: James Joyce, André Gide, Thomas Mann, 1964.

Cordle, Thomas. André Gide, 1969.

Fowlie, Wallace. André Gide: His Life and Art, 1965.

Ireland, George William. André Gide: A Study of His Creative Writings, 1970.

Mann, Klaus. André Gide and the Crisis of Modern Thought, 1943.

O’Brien, Justin. Portrait of André Gide: A Critical Biography, 1953.

Weinberg, Kurt. On Gide’s “Promethee”: Private Myth and Public Mystification, 1972.

Compare and Contrast

(Novels for Students)

1890s: The French government is in the era of the Third Republic, under the Constitution of 1875. France is a parliamentary democracy...

(The entire section is 216 words.)

Topics for Further Study

(Novels for Students)

The region of North Africa includes the modern nations of Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, and Liberia. Research and report on the political,...

(The entire section is 258 words.)

Media Adaptations

(Novels for Students)

The Immoralist was adapted as a play written by Ruth Goetz and Augustus Goetz, first staged on Broadway in 1954. This production...

(The entire section is 40 words.)

What Do I Read Next?

(Novels for Students)

Gide’s short novel La Porte étroite (1909, Strait is the Gate) is written in the mode of the récit, which Gide identified...

(The entire section is 311 words.)