Last Updated on February 6, 2023, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 253
Book 4 Summary
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The gods meet to discuss the outcome of the duel in the previous section. Zeus recommends a truce, while Hera and Athena arguing for the complete destruction of Troy.
After some deliberation, Athena is sent to provoke further fighting. She manages to do this by persuading Pandarus to gain glory for himself by killing Menelaus.
Pandarus takes her advice and shoots an arrow at Menelaus, drawing blood but not fatally wounding him.
This action does what Athena set out to do, and it stirs both sides into battle with fierce fighting resulting in many deaths.
Book 5 Summary
The battle continues to rage. Diomedes, with help from Athena, performs many courageous acts. She also gives him the ability to see other gods on the field of battle, but warns him not to engage any gods in combat except Aphrodite, whom she despises.
Diomedes wounds the son of Aphrodite, Aeneas, and chases them both when Aphrodite comes to her son’s rescue. He eventually wounds her in the hand with his spear before she runs off to Olympus hurt and frightened. Zeus orders her to stay out of the war as she is not trained in warfare. Apollo then carries Aeneas away from danger.
When Ares spurs on the Trojans for an upper hand, Athena and Hera urge Diomedes on. He badly injures Ares with his spear causing him to leave for Olympus in anger but Zeus does not sympathize with him.
The battle continues without help from the gods on either side.