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Last Updated on June 19, 2019, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 336

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In this novel, Elizabeth Bowen explores the true meaning of family and the importance of accepting responsibility, especially in the face of social hypocrisy. She frames the story of friendship betrayed, undue maternal influence, and the reestablishment of family ties by using the character of Henrietta, a young girl arriving in Paris for an important stage in her education. Rather than learning what will become of this girl, however, the reader is inserted into another story, concerning a girl much like her but a generation earlier. The house of the title, and its domineering mistress, Madame Fisher, provide further continuity between the two girls.

Bowen builds on the English reputation of Paris as being a city of romance and often illicit love, where the relationship between Karen and Max begins. Because the two betray Naomi, their best friend and fiancée respectively, they must both be punished. Naomi’s mother plays a crucial role by forcing the engagement to end, rendering Naomi’s misery complete. Karen, succumbing to the social pressure against mothers of illegitimate children, marries Ray for security and abandons her child. Max ends his life in suicide, thus apparently abandoning both the woman he loves and their child.

The plot is resolved with Ray, who has no biological connection to this child, Leopold, stepping up to accept him into their family. Leopold has spent nine anguished years with foster parents in Italy, wondering why his biological parents do not want him. Significantly for Bowen’s message, it must be Ray and not Karen who arrives to announce this family reunion. This father, the reader can be sure, will provide the appropriate role model for the boy, in a way that his biological father never could have done. Although Karen has erred in her earlier decisions, she has matured into an appropriate mother as well by telling her husband the truth even though it might have ended their marriage. With these two mature adults, the boy will now find a true family and home.

Places Discussed

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Last Updated on May 8, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 446

*Fisher house

*Fisher house. Parisian home of Naomi Fisher and her mother; the house of the novel’s title and the place in which the main action of the first and third parts of the novel unfolds. It is here that eleven-year-old Henrietta Mountjoy meets Leopold Moody. The house, in its narrow and confining way with its “thin frame,” “tight blinds” and air of sternness, suggests the secrets concerning Leopold’s parentage and the adults’ passions against which the two children struggle for a sense of their own understanding and identities. The presence of the dying Madame Fisher in her upstairs room emphasizes the need for the children to be quiet—a need reflecting the effect of the past’s secrecy on the present.

The unfamiliarity of the house to both Henrietta and Leopold provides a visual context for the situation in which the children find themselves. Both are feeling their way through unfamiliar territory. Henrietta, whose mother has died and whose father has sent her to spend time with her grandmother in Mentone, is visiting the Paris house during a stopover before another chaperon accompanies her on the next leg of her journey. Leopold, who has traveled from Spezia, is anxiously awaiting a meeting with Karen Michaelis, the natural mother whom he has never seen. Although the children are unaware of it, Miss Fisher and her dying mother are deeply connected to Leopold’s past, as is the house itself.

The events that occur in this house have great meaning, particularly to Leopold. In earlier days Madame Fisher provided rooms in this house for English and American girls undergoing a finishing-school experience in France. It was here that Karen, as a young girl, was first infatuated with Max Ebhart, who later became engaged to Miss Fisher.


*Rushbrook. Irish town that is home to Karen’s Aunt Violet and Uncle Bill. Their house and the adults in it suggest the possible entrapment of life that both children have yet to unravel. For Karen this house, too, seems like a stopover between her life with her parents and her coming marriage to Ray.

Mony’s Restaurant

Mony’s Restaurant. Dark, chilly restaurant in Boulogne, France, where Max and Karen eat. The fact that Max has “known” the restaurant before, presumably with other women, makes it even darker for Karen. Their meeting and conversation there parallel some of the confusion of Henrietta and Leopold about their own history, sexuality, and personal identity. Max and Karen share very little before they meet at the restaurant, but there they plan their second meeting where Leopold will be conceived and where they will create their own shared history in him.


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Last Updated on May 8, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 264

Austin, Allan E. Elizabeth Bowen. Rev. ed. Boston: Twayne, 1989. Good introduction that discusses Bowen’s style, syntax, use of narrative voice, and evocative settings. Analyzes the theme, character, and setting of The House in Paris and argues that Ray is the novel’s value center. Helpful annotated bibliography.

Jordan, Heather Bryant. How Will the Heart Endure?: Elizabeth Bowen and the Landscape of War. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992. Discusses the importance of Bowen’s uniquely Anglo-Irish background and its influence on her writing, examining her use of the term race to describe national or cultural characteristics, among them the ideal of the Big House in Anglo-Ireland and the provincialism of the English middle class, which is represented by the Michealises.

Kenney, Edwin, Jr. Elizabeth Bowen. Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press, 1974. Good introduction to The House in Paris that discusses Bowen’s use of structure to express the theme of separation between child and adult. Also provides detailed analysis of setting and character.

Lassner, Phyllis. Elizabeth Bowen. Basingstoke, England: Macmillan, 1990. Excellent introduction to The House in Paris, providing interesting critical evaluation from a feminist perspective. Discusses narrative structure, character, setting, and theme, noting Karen’s ambivalence toward traditional home and family values.

Lee, Hermione. Elizabeth Bowen: An Estimation. Totowa, N.J.: Barnes & Noble Books, 1981. Asserts that the journeys that structure The House in Paris also reveal theme, subject, and character development. Analyzes the relationship between identity and time, noting contrasting speeds and pace of time in the novel’s three sections. Discusses Bowen’s blending of gothic suspense, melodrama, comedy, and documentary realism.


Critical Essays