Why did the Simon Commission come to India?

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The Simon Commission, known as the Indian Statutory Commission, was designed to study constitutional reform in India and make recommendations to the British government.

The Government of India Act of 1919 created a system of dyarchy to govern the provinces of India. The Indian people did not like this system and wanted changes to occur. Unfortunately, the Simon Commission included no Indian people on it, even though the future of India was being discussed. This angered the people of India. The Indian National Congress and a part of the Muslin League boycotted the Simon Commission. There were protests in India about the Simon Commission.

The Simon Commission recommended ending the dyarchy system and replacing it with a system of representative government. As a result of the Simon Commission, the Government of India Act of 1935 established representative government in the Indian provinces. Provincial legislatures would have more Indian representatives, which could eventually form governments. However, the governors would still have significant powers such as calling the legislature into session.

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The Simon Commission came to India in 1927 to generate a report on how well the 1919 Government of India Act was working. The Government of India Act established the new Indian constitution and Great Britain appointed British officials to the Simon Commission in order to oversee the effectiveness of the constitution. Sir John Simon and Clement Atlee shared joint chairmanship of the commission. Indians boycotted the Simon Commission due the exclusion of Indian representatives and it was also met with harsh criticism from the Indian National Congress and other involved Indian political parties. 

The Simon Commission report is still regarded in high esteem by British Officials but its findings were ultimately offset by the declaration of October 1929. The October 1929 declaration's goal was for Indians to pursue dominion status whereas the Simon Commission proposed provincial autonomy without parliamentary responsibility.   

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