Who was King Philip II?

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I assume that you are asking about King Philip II of Spain as he is the most famous of the various rulers named Philip II.  If so, Philip II was the king of Spain from 1556 to 1598.  He was king during a time that Spain’s power was at its peak.  Spain was getting huge amounts of wealth from its new colonies in the Americas.  It controlled the Netherlands.  It started to truly colonize the Philippines (named after Philip) during his reign.  Philip is perhaps most famous in world history for ordering the disastrous attempted invasion of England by the Spanish Armada.

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Who was Philip II of Macedon?

Philip II is best know to history for being the father of Alexander the Great.  However, Philip was a great conqueror in his own right, laying the basis for Alexander's greater conquests.

Before Philip, Macedonia was divided and weak.  But Philip transformed it.  Philip used superior military tactics, notably the effective use of cavalry and more lightly armored hoplites with long spears instead of swords, to defeat Greece in 338 BCE.  He was acknowledged as hegemon of all Greece except for Sparta.

Philip was assassinated in 336 BCE and was therefore unable to pursue his dream of conquering Persia.  That fell to his son.

Thus, Philip is important both as the father of Alexander and as the king who made Macedonia strong.

 

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