Many of the most eminent mathematicians lived in the ancient past.
First among mathematicians is Euclid. Beyond lending his name to
Euclidean geometry, in his greatest work, the *Elements*, he provides
the geometrical axioms that are the foundation of geometrical proofs.
Like Euclid, Archimedes also made a great contribution to the study of
mathematics. Much of his work was done in the application of mathematical
principles, rather than studying mathematics on a purely theoretical
level. In the early modern period, particularly the period known as the
Scientific Revolution, Galileo and Sir Isaac Newton stand above many of their
contemporaries in terms of their mathematical prowess. Like Archimedes
before them, Galileo and Newton applied mathematical principles in their work;
both developed their physical theories using mathematical principles. Sir
Isaac Newton, with Leibniz, is credited as the co-inventor of the calculus;
Newton developed the calculus as a means of further exploring the implications
of his ideas in physics. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Henri
Poincare, Charles Babbage, Alan M. Turing (known for his impressive calculating
machine - the Turing machine) and Kurt F. Goedel are among the most skilled
mathematicians. As in the early modern period, many mathematicians of the
past two centuries applied their skills in relation to physics and the
advancement of computers.

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