The Normans of France -- though originally from Scandinavia, hence their name, derived from 'northmen' -- settled in Northumbria in 1066.
William the Conqueror, also known as William of Normandy, insisted on settling Northumbria -- one of four major English kingdoms -- to protect his newly formed kingdom from Scottish conquest.
Ten sixty-six is the definitive year of the Norman Conquest. William the Conqueror and his army settled England, after defeating Harold during the Battle of Hastings, thereby establishing a French influence. This influence permeated everything, allowing for the establishment of a more developed courtly life, changes in cuisine, attention to landscaping and dining rituals, and permanent changes to the language, thereby transforming English from a Germanic tongue to one with both French and Germanic roots.