What caused the government crisis in Japan?

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In your question, you tagged this with “recession in the ‘20s,” so I am assuming that you are asking about a government crisis in Japan from that time period.  The most important government crisis in Japan in that general time period is what is called the Taisho political crisis of 1912 to 1913.

In July of 1912, the Meiji emperor died.  He was succeeded by his son, Yoshihito, who took Taisho as his reign name.  The crisis coincided with the death of the old emperor and the ascension of the new and is therefore named for the Taisho emperor. 

The crisis came about when Prime Minister Saionji tried to cut military spending.  The army minister resigned and Saionji’s cabinet fell.  A new cabinet was eventually formed by Prime Minister Katsura.  It soon ran into trouble when Katsura refused requests by the navy to build battleships.  The navy then threatened that it would not appoint a naval minister if Katsura did not give in to its demands.  Katsura got an imperial rescript ordering the navy to supply a minister.  This forced the navy to give in, but it led to riots because people felt that Katsura was undermining democracy by going to the emperor.  Katsura had to resign.

The major cause of this crisis was the fact that the Meiji Constitution gave the military the power to refuse to appoint ministers of the Army and/or Navy.  This essentially gave them veto power over anything that a cabinet did.  If they disapproved of anything a prime minister or cabinet did, they could simply withdraw their minister and hold out until a prime minister that they liked was appointed. 

Sadly, the Taisho political crisis did not lead to this problem being solved.  The military continued to hold excessive power.  This was a major factor that helped to bring about World War II.

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