What are some similarities between the Parliament and Congress?

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A parliamentary form of government, such as in the UK, is similar to the US Congress in the sense that it's based on the idea of having elected or appointed representatives who pass laws and perform checks and balances in government. As the most powerful legislative branch of the government, this body of lawmakers has a bicameral structure in both the US and the UK.

While Congress is divided into the upper Senate and the lower House of Representatives, the UK Parliament consists of the upper House of Lords and the lower House of Commons.

The main similarities of the two political systems are in the lower house, as the House of Lords contrasts with the Senate in various ways. As an example, lower house members are elected by the public, whereas House of Lords officials are appointed.

The leader in both lower houses, elected by fellow members, is called "Speaker of the House." Members can be expelled from government in each system.

Bills can be introduced in either house. Usually after a bill is approved in one house, it is sent to the other for a confirmation vote following a debate of the issue. In the US, if the bill passes in both houses, it is sent to the president for approval. However, in the UK, a bill becomes a law after it is approved by both houses then receives "Royal Assent" as an Act of Parliament.

Both systems have two major parties that dominate politics, mixed with smaller independent parties. In the UK the Conservative Party is similar to Republicans, reflecting the interests of free-market business executives, while the Labour Party parallels the worker ideologies of Democrats.

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The United States Congress and the Parliaments of Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, and several other European and Commonwealth countries are examples of what are known as a republican system of government or a "representative democracy." Under such a system, citizens do not vote directly on legislation but instead elect representatives to a legislative body. Those representatives actually vote on legislation, in theory representing their constituencies' positions. 

Both Congress and Parliament are examples of the legislative branch of government, and have as their primary task creating and amending laws. This branch is separate from the judiciary, which interprets laws and applies them to individual cases.

Both Parliament and Congress consist of upper and lower houses. In Britain the upper house (the House of Lords) contains peers (members of the nobility), appointed members, and certain Bishops and Archbishops of the Church of England, while members of the Canadian Senate are appointed and those of the United States Senate elected. Members of both Congress and Parliament represent geographical areas, known as electoral districts, ridings (Britain and Canada), or constituencies. 

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