What were the U.S.'s major foreign policy objectives (1815-1824)? How did the transportation revolution contribute to a national market economy (1815-1840)? How did John Marshall's Supreme Court enhance nationalism and federal strength? How did American culture (1820s-1830s) reflect democracy? Describe Andrew Jackson's temperament and political philosophy.

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I will answer the first few questions and leave you to think about the final two. The theme that ties these questions together is the growth of American nationalism following the War of 1812.

The War of 1812, which ended in 1815, caused the United States to develop a new...

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nationalist foreign policy. In addition to acquiring Florida from Spain in 1819 (with the Adams-Onís Treaty), the United States developed the Monroe Doctrine in 1823. Formulated from a speech that President Monroe delivered to the Congress during that year, the Monroe Doctrine declared that the United States opposed European colonialism in the Western Hemisphere at a time when many Latin American nations were becoming independent from Portugal and Spain. In return, the U.S. vowed not to interfere in European affairs. This document had a lasting effect on foreign policy and was cited by Presidents such as Kennedy and Reagan well into the next century. 

After the War of 1812, the United States also turned to building a strong economy, part of its nationalist agenda not to be dependent on European nations for imports. The transportation revolution, including the construction of roads, canals, and railroads, helped support the market revolution in which products could be efficiently exchanged between different markets. For example, the Erie Canal helped create a water route between New York City and the Great Lakes and helped bring agricultural products from the Midwest to the Atlantic seaboard. 

During this time, the U.S. Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall handed down decisions that supported a strong federal government. For example, in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), the court upheld the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States and stated that states could not tax federal institutions such as the bank. These decisions supported the idea of a strong nation. 

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In your post, you have asked five questions. The policy at enotes is to respond to one question per post. I will respond to your first question.

Between 1815 and 1824, the United States had several foreign policy objectives. One of the main objectives was to support the independence movements in Latin America. Many countries in Latin America were becoming independent from Spain and Portugal during this time. We supported the desire of these people to be free from the rule of the Europeans. There was some thought that the Europeans would try to return to the Americas to reestablish their colonies. As a result, President Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine in 1823. This major foreign policy statement told the European countries that they would not establish any new colonies in the Americas. This statement, backed by the British who wanted to weaken their European rivals, helped to show the Europeans that the United States was growing as a force in world affairs.

The United States also pursued a policy of controlling more land in North America. We signed the Adam-Onís Treaty with Spain in 1819. This treaty gave control of Florida to the United States. In return, the United States would pay any claims the Spanish had against Americans who rebelled against Spain. This amount was about $5 million. Spain also agreed to drop its claims to the Oregon Territory, and the United States acknowledged the Spanish control of Texas.

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