What conflicts did UN Resolution 181 cause between Arabs and Jews?

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As a result of the British Mandate after WWII, Israelis were granted territory in the British lands where the Arab Palestinians lived. Ever since, there has been tension between the Arabs who inhabited this region (primarily Muslims) and the Israelis. This Partition plan, also known as UN Resolution 181, has generated a lot of conflict ever since. For a diagram of the partition plan, please see the attached image.

We can trace the conflict back to 1917, when British foreign minister Lord Arthur Balfour issued a declaration called the Balfour Declaration which announced the British Empire’s support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. This land in particular, which includes Jerusalem, is considered the holy land for the three great monotheistic religions: Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.

Once the Partition began in 1948, Arab states immediately refused to recognize the Israelis and began to attack Israeli lands. Over time, however, with Western support, the Israeli military defended its lands and actually expanded its territory to include much of the land that was given to the Palestinian Arabs by UN Resolution 181. This has caused a lot of tension over the years. Today, Palestinians live in two main regions: the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.

In 1956, Britain, France and Israel invaded Egypt's Sinai Peninsula. This was a result of Egypt nationalizing the Suez Canal, which the British did not like because they feared Egypt gaining too much power over sea-trade in the region.

In 1967, Israel attacked Egypt, Syria, and Jordan and took land, citing fear that those countries were planning an attack first. The result was a six-day war in which Israel doubled in size.

In 1973, Egypt and Syria attacked Israel on the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur to attempt to regain their lost land, but they failed. This was called the Yom Kippur War.

In 1978, Israel attacked Lebanon due to the rise of Lebanese militant attacks from a group called Hezbollah. This conflict continued until 2000, when Israel pulled its forces out of southern Lebanon.

In general, lots of conflicts continue to occur between the Israelis and surrounding Arab states because they fight over the ownership of the Holy Land. Israelis see the land as theirs from the early days, when the Kingdom of Judea existed in this region and thrived as an empire until it was conquered and the Jewish people were expelled, creating the first Jewish diaspora.

The Arabs, who have lived in the region since, including when Islam began and grew in the 620s throughout the region, maintain that the land was theirs, but the Western powers after WWII took that land away arbitrarily. Since UN Resolution 181 occurred, there has been and will be violence between these groups over land, territory, and religion until proper mediation has occurred.

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