How did geography, political leadership, manpower, industrial capacity, and government strength advantage the North or South?

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During the American Civil War the North had unparalleled advantages over the South in terms of its industrial capacity, manpower, and relative strength of the central government. The south, meanwhile, had a comparative advantage over the North in terms of geography.
The Northern states of the fractured union had a significant industrial advantage over the South, which was a largely agrarian economy. Prior to the outset of the war, more than 90 percent of America's manufacturing originated in the northern states, and they produced 32 times more firearms than the South, as well as 20 times more pig iron, and 30 times more leather goods.
The North, additionally, had nearly twice the manpower of the South and a more unified central government; the Confederate States constitution provided for a much looser federation than did its northern counterpart.
However, the South enjoyed relative advantages over the North in terms of its geography. The larger and more expansive territory of the South made conquest and occupation a difficult proposition. And, its long and meandering coastline strained the ability of the United States Navy to mount an effective blockade.
Both the North and the South had strengths and weaknesses vis-à-vis their political and military leadership that allowed a relative equality between the two.

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