How did African Americans resist segregation during the Gilded Age?

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The Gilded Age in the United States spanned between 1870 to 1900. This was the post-Civil War era, and slavery was abolished throughout the country. African Americans who were former-slaves began to leave the agrarian economy of the South after gaining freedom of movement, and freedom in general, to move to more urbanized areas of the United States. Many black citizens moved to cities like New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Boston, and Detroit during the Gilded Age.

This was due to the fact that although slavery was abolished on a national level, Jim Crow state laws were implemented in the South, which segregated blacks and whites and continued the oppression of African Americans. Freedom of movement and economic engagement were ways that African Americans fought against segregation. For instance, many former-slaves joined the land rush in Oklahoma between 1889 and 1891, and this led to the creation of Black Wall Street.

While Afro-centric political activism and direct action did not become common until the mid-twentieth century, black people who moved to urban areas above the Mason-Dixon line had marginally more freedom to express their political beliefs.

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