What role did women play in promoting alternative visions in the nineteenth century? Which movements proposed new societal roles for women?

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One alternate vision was an Islamic fundamentalist revival in response to Western Christian influence. In West Africa, the jihad of Uthman dan Fodio and the Fulani and Hausa peasantry against what they perceived to be corrupt native Hausa rulers was successfully supported by both warrior women and educated women.

The Sepoy rebellion of 1857 in India sparked the beginning of an alternate vision of an anti-colonial Indian nationalist movement that garnered Islamic and Hindu support. Although the "greased cartridge" problem was quickly rectified by the British, desire for independence from British rule persisted and grew. Women played an important supportive role in these movements.

Another alternate vision opposed the Qing court establishment and Confucian cultural hegemony in China. The egalitarian Taiping movement emphasized the equality of the sexes. Marginalized women and men formed the base of this movement and proposed a new and equal role for women in society.

Male and female socialists and communists in Europe also promoted equality of women as a feature of their movements, as various strands of liberalism had done before them (and continued to do). Women could increasingly be found toward the end of the nineteenth century at university and in the workplace in Europe and North America.

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