Describe the differences between the Upper South and Lower South.

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The Upper South included states such as Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky. Diversified agriculture was common here with many farmers growing tobacco, hay, and livestock. While there were some major cotton producers with slaves, the majority of these small farmers did not own slaves. The more prosperous of them may rent one or two slaves from a planter. At the onset of the Civil War in 1861, states such as Tennessee would leave the Union reluctantly, only making their decision when Lincoln called for volunteers after the war started. Even then, the Upper South provided many Union regiments.

The Lower South included states such as Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. Cotton was vital to these states, especially as demand increased in overseas textile mills and those of the Northeast. A minority of people owned the majority of the slaves, as the South had most of the nation's millionaires before the war. Even when encouraged to grow food for the Confederate army, many of these cotton producers continued to grow large amounts of cotton. States of the Lower South would be the first to secede from the Union, starting with South Carolina in December 1860.

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The South was divided into two regions. One region was called the Upper South while the other region was called the Lower South.

The Upper South included the states of Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. Farming was the main job in these states. Farmers raised tobacco, hemp, wheat, and vegetables in this region by 1860.

The Lower South, which also was called the Deep South, included the states of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Florida, and Texas. This area was also an agricultural area and the main crops that were grown here by 1860 were sugar and rice.

Slavery was important throughout the South. There were many plantations found throughout the South. Many slaves worked on these plantations harvesting the crops. The climate and soil of the South were suited for farming. This helps explain why the South is mainly an agricultural region.

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