What were the roles and influences of Calvinism, Protestantism, Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Puritanism in 17th and 18th century England?

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The "religions" you've listed are not religions, per se. They are all part of Christianity. It would be more correct to refer to them as religious movements. In fact, Calvinism, Lutheranism, and Puritanism fall within Protestantism. There is no Protestant church. Having said that, you might want to look at what caused people to be so dissatisfied with Catholicism (the original Christian church) to break away and form another church; in other words, what caused the Protestant Reformation? Why are there so many different churches within the Protestant umbrella?

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Although these religions differed, one thing they had in common was that they were all scrutinized, ostracized, and sometimes persecuted for their beliefs at one time or another.  All were looking for freedom to practice as they saw fit without interference.

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One thing that you might talk about is the political fighting that went along with the religious conflicts.  For example, there was the English Civil War in the 1640s that was in part a dispute between the Puritans and the Anglicans (Protestants). These sorts of conflicts also helped cause many Puritans to leave the country and many of them settled in the American colonies.

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