Analyze the passage from Henry IV, Part 1 starting with "I know you all..." and ending with "...think least I will".

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Due to the fact that spelling was far from standardized when Shakespeare wrote, there's a possibility that some pun was intended with son/sun, so you have an interesting interpretation, to say the least. 

I just wanted to add that, while Hal hangs out with a "bad crowd" in I Henry...

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IV, we see him honing his ability to "drink with any tinker in his own language during [his] life" (II.4.17-20). That is, to relate to any man in his own language (which would include an ability to relate to that man), skills which prove invaluable to him when he isHenry V and moving about the camp to get a first-hand idea of the emotions and attitudes of his army. 

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Prince Hal is speaking a soliloquy but mentally addressing the dissolute and grossly inferior associates who have been trying to lead him astray and have been giving him a bad reputation. This especially includes one of Shakespeare's greatest characters, Sir John Falstaff, who is funny and likable but unscrupulous. Hal's whole soliloquy is in metaphors. I doubt if the sun meant anything but the sun to the Elizabethan audience. Hal is saying that he will be like the sun which can be obscured by clouds [i.e. bad companions, bad repute] but can break through at any time it chooses. His entire soliloquy is saying that he is acting badly in order to appear more attractive by contrast when he chooses to do so. He may be thinking that that time will come when his father dies and he becomes king. This in fact happens. He is an entirely different person in  Shakespeare's Henry V, and he rejects his old cronies in order to become a truly regal person as well as an outstanding military leader. He also shows his superior qualities when his father becomes embroiled in wars with rebellious nobles, notably with the fiery and dangerous Hotspur whom he kills in a duel on the battlefield. But it is the transformation in his character that occurs when Hal becomes King that is foretold in this soliloquy in Henry IV, Part One. His metaphors are all about contrast. He knows that he has a bad reputation but that he will appear so much more admirable when the proper time comes. This is what he means by saying:

My reformation, glittering o're my fault,

Shall show more goodly and attract more eyes

Than that which hath no foil [i.e. no contrast] to set it off.

The well-known lines

If all the year were playing holidays,

To sport would be as tedious as to work . . .

are also about contrast. If Hal acted like a model prince all the time, he would attract no special notice when he became King.

His entire soliloquy may be nothing more than rationalization for his bad behavior, bad associates, and bad reputation, but he does manage to effect the character transformation he alludes to in this soliloquy.

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