Where does Brian find shelter in Hatchet and why is he lucky?

Quick answer:

Brian finds shelter in Hatchet under a rock formation on the north side of the ridge. He considers himself lucky because the natural formation is better than anything he would have known how to build himself and provides protection from the elements.

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Brian finds shelter under a rocky outcrop on the north side of the ridge. The rocky ledge will provide some natural shelter from the elements, and with minimal extra work, he will be able to live in an outstanding shelter.

According to his description, it appears as though the rock has been "scooped." This implies that he has found something unusually well-suited to meet his needs and leads to his feeling lucky.

He feels lucky because the shelter that he has found is so much better than the lean-to he had originally envisioned building based on the time he had gone to the park with a friend and the two had pretended to be lost in the woods. He also feels lucky that the overhang is tall enough that he can stand underneath it. The shelter also proves to be waterproof, which makes Brian feel even luckier.

After finding some food and doing some work on his shelter, he feels lucky to be able to wrap himself up in his windbreaker and try to go to sleep—even if sleep proves elusive that night. Since he wouldn't have known how to build a good shelter with his own two hands, he feels lucky that nature has created something suitable for him.

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Why does Brian consider himself lucky in Hatchet?

Brian considers himself lucky because he lived the crash.  The pilot's corpse and the destroyed condition of the plane help to reaffirm to Brian how lucky he is.  He feels fortunate that his landing was in an open area of the forest and not through a tree and he feels very fortunate that before the pilot died, instruction was given about how to fly a plane.  Brian also feels lucky to have escaped the crash with scratches and cuts, and not broken limbs or a condition which required immediate medical attention.  When Brian surveys the damaged condition of things, he does consider himself lucky to a certain extent.

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