Download Hard Times Study Guide

Subscribe Now

Book III, Chapter 7: Summary and Analysis

Chapter 7: Whelp-Hunting

Summary
Tom Gradgrind stands by the Old Hell Shaft, next to Bounderby and a little apart from his father and sister. Sissy, seeing him there and watching him take in the fact that his father has been called to Stephen’s side, leaves Rachael, steals up behind Tom and whispers something. The two confer briefly, and Tom leaves the scene without being seen.

As Sissy explains to Mr. Gradgrind, she had remembered where her father’s old circus was at this time of year and had directed Tom to flee there and ask Mr. Sleary to take him in and hide him. Mr. Gradgrind, relieved that his son is in no immediate danger of arrest, takes heart when he realizes that Sleary’s Circus is performing in a town not far from Liverpool, from where Tom could be shipped far away from England.

Using different routes to get there, Mr. Gradgrind, Louisa, and Sissy travel to Sleary’s Circus. Sissy and Louisa arrive first. Sissy is warmly welcomed by Mr. Sleary and her old friends among the performers. Louisa asks after Tom; Mr. Sleary points out where he is on stage, completely disguised as a comic black servant. When later in the day Mr. Gradgrind arrives and enters the now empty circus ring, it is in this grotesque and ludicrous garb that his son appears before him, his face a mask of black greasepaint. After hearing the full story of the robbery, for which Tom says he alone was responsible, his father tells him he must be sent away from England as soon as possible. The family says its farewells. The elder Gradgrind tells him to “atone, by repentence and better conduct, for the shocking action you have committed, and the dreadful consequence to which it has led.” Louisa opens her arms, but Tom spurns her.

As Mr. Sleary, the elder Gradgrind, Sissy, a crying Louisa, and a newly redisguised Tom, his face washed and dressed in a countryman’s smock, leave the circus, a familiar figure suddenly runs into their midst and triumphantly collars Tom. It is Bitzer.

Analysis
In trying to have Tom spirited out of England by Sleary’s Horse-Riders, Mr. Gradgrind and his party are undoubtedly engaged in frustrating justice; but, partly because Tom’s rescue itself involves the humiliating punishment of his comic disguise, Dickens evidently thought his readers would not dwell on any legal niceties raised by Chapter 7. Modern readers are in any case more likely to be disturbed by Dickens’ use of a racial stereotype, the comic black servant. Dickens means to show Tom as both ludicrous and abject, “blackened” by his evil actions, and for this the traditional figure of the stage “blackamoor” answered his purposes.

The reappearance of the circus at the conclusion of Hard Times is significant. Sleary’s Horse-Riders, we remember, are a community devoted to the cultivation of the fancy, to art and creativity. At the beginning of the novel they had been regarded as at best a nuisance, at worst a set of dangerous vagabonds, by Mr. Gradgrind. Now he must rely on them to save his son. Mr. Sleary’s generosity, his willingness to help the man he calls “Thquire,” without once pressing him for any explanations or...

(The entire section is 827 words.)