Hard Times Book I, Chapters 10-12: Summary and Analysis
by Charles Dickens

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Book I, Chapters 10-12: Summary and Analysis

Chapter 10: Stephen Blackpool
Chapter 11: No Way Out
Chapter 12: The Old Woman

New Characters:
Stephen Blackpool: one of Bounderby’s “hands”

Rachael: a fellow worker

Stephen’s wife: an unnamed, drunken, sub-human woman

Stephen Blackpool, a weaver in Mr. Bounderby’s cotton mill, stands searching for someone in the crowd of women leaving the factory at the end of the day. He’s a gray-haired man of 40, who speaks in the broad accents of his native Lancashire. His hard life has made him look much older. Just as he’s about to turn away disappointed, he sees a familiar shape ahead of him. It is Rachael, his friend and companion for many years. The two greet each other affectionately, but there is a sadness and a certain constraint in their greeting too. Almost her first words are that they ought not to walk together so often, and he agrees—it might cause people to talk. Stephen sees her home and then walks home himself.

He lives in one of the poorest quarters of Coketown, in a single room above a small shop. He keeps it neat with a few simple pieces of furniture. The room is dark. Entering it with a candle, he stumbles over a body. It is his wife, apparently returned from a drunken binge, who has been sitting in a motionless stupor on the floor of his room. She rises, talks angrily and incoherently and then collapses on the bed. Stephen covers her with a blanket and falls asleep on a chair.

The following morning finds Stephen at his power loom. The noon-bell rings. He rises from his work, exits the mill, and makes his way to Mr. Bounderby’s residence, which stands on a hill at some distance from Stephen’s usual neighborhood. He gives his name to Bounderby’s servant.

Bounderby is at lunch, attended by Mrs. Sparsit. He knows Blackpool to be a reliable employee, with nothing “troublesome against him,” and so invites him in. Stephen says he has come for advice. He tells Bounderby about his unhappy 19-year marriage to the woman in his room and of her increasing addiction to drink. He says for the past five years he has taken to paying her to stay away, but that now she has returned. He adds that if it were not for the pity and comfort of “th’ best lass living or dead” (he means Rachael), he would have gone mad or killed himself. Blackpool asks what he must do to be “rid of her,” remarking that he has read in the papers of people set free to marry again from marriages less unfortunate than his.

Mr. Bounderby assures Blackpool that what he wants is out of the question. Only a tiny minority of extremely wealthy people can take advantage of the laws for divorce. For such as Stephen, his duty is plain: he married for better or for worse, and he must stay married. Blackpool takes his leave, with the observation that affairs in England seem to be all in “a muddle,” an expression that, however mild, Bounderby reacts to as if he had been preaching subversion.

On his way back to the factory Blackpool is stopped by an old woman, who questions him closely about the occupant of the house from which he has just emerged. In appearance, she is a simple country woman, who, it turns out, travels to Coketown every year just to catch a glimpse of Mr. Bounderby. Learning from Blackpool that he has worked for 12 years in Bounderby’s mill, the old woman seizes his hand and kisses it, saying, “I must kiss the hand…that has worked in this fine factory for 12 years!” Back at work, Blackpool sees the old woman still outside the factory, gazing up at the building, apparently “lost in admiration.”

When the evening bell sounds, Blackpool joins the throng leaving the factory and once again looks for Rachael, even though he knows she has warned him against...

(The entire section is 986 words.)