Ideas for Group Discussions
No other Atwood fiction has aroused the public debate that has accompanied The Handmaid's Tale, and thus it should provoke lively discussion in any group undertaking to read it. The most obvious focus for attention should be its provocative thesis that religious conservativism around the world threatens to reverse the gains of the contemporary Women's Movement and create a nightmarish subordination of women to a reinvigorated patriarchy. Similarly, readers should examine Atwood's underlying assumption that the oppression of women has some of its most tenacious roots in theology; while her most obvious target is the West's Judeo-Christian tradition, she also incorporates elements from Islam and Hinduism, among other religions. Readers might consider Atwood's claim that there is no political circumstance in the text that she cannot document as having occurred at some point in the historical past or present — it is worth contemplating the impact of so many such practices brought together in one social system. For those familiar with other famous dystopias, a brief comparison with Huxley's Brave New World or Orwell's 1984 might help to clarify the assumptions informing Atwood's imaginary realm and determine where she agrees with her predecessors' premises and where she sets forth premises unique to her own vision of ideologically driven totalitarianism.
Another equally controversial facet of Atwood's analysis involves her criticism of the censoring impulses being unleashed by abuses of public expression and eruptions of violence in free societies around the world. The novel asks readers to consider the price of freedom and the potential consequences of circumscribing what can and cannot be said or thought. Atwood is just as uncompromising with feminists as with fundamentalists on this subject, and she lampoons those in both camps who argue for a monolithic imposition of their ideology for the "good" of human society; it is worth asking, then, in what ways political idealisms at any point on the spectrum fall into the trap of absolutism and intolerance.
The novel's evocation of ecological apocalypse invites discussion about the plausibility of its nightmare scenario and the relationships Atwood draws among consumerism, militarism, and natural catastrophe. Her placement of infertility at the center of this crisis offers a cunning point of intersection between legal, religious and scientific arguments about human behavior and could provoke lively debate about alternative scenarios dealing with the inability of humans to procreate — including ones already surfacing in contemporary culture such as surrogate motherhood and in vitro fertilization.
1. Why are women the special targets of the new social order devised in Gilead? What other special targets exist, and why? Why do race and gender hierarchies matter so much to the ruling elite of this world?
2. How does class stratification blur and reinforce the other categories of differentiation in Gilead? Why are class designations so important to the workings of this society? How are those in the lower social rungs kept there?
3. Atwood's fictions are routinely set in Canada and involve Canadian characters, but this one is situated squarely in the U.S. Does her critique of what she once called "Americanism" continue in such a choice? What does she seem to consider distinctively American about Gilead and the historical and cultural processes that have brought it into being?
4. Why does religion stand at the center of the backlash Atwood imagines against women's liberation in the late twentieth century? What premises about women does it permit, and what kind of action on those premises does it encourage? Why?
5. What is Offred 's world view and how does it shape her behavior in the years before the revolution? What is she like at the start of the novel when she is introduced as a "handmaid?" How does her attitude about her situation change in the course of the narrative? What prompts those changes, and...
(The entire section is 1,092 words.)